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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Piaget’s Theory (Stages) of Moral Development
Focus on the interaction between cognitive skills and social interaction

Series of moral dilemmas
The Premoral Period (0-5)
when children have little awareness of socially defined rules. They aren't aware when an action is wrong and don't understand why anyone should be punished.
The Stage of Moral Realism (5-10)
Moral Absolute - Rules are sacred and unchangeable and are handed down by powerful authority figures. Black and White

Expiatory Punishment - Punishment for Punishment's sake

Immanent justice - the belief that if you do something wrong, someone somewhere will do you wrong and you will be punished.

Believe wrongness is based on outcome, not intention. Strong respect for rules and authority figures.
The Stage of Moral Relativism
Important Role of Intention - Arbitrary agreement and rules can be changed by society
Reciprocal Punishment - Punishment is same as crime

Believe wrongness is based on intention, not outcome.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Level 1: Preconventional Morality
Level 2: Conventional Morality
Level 3: Postconventional Morality
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg presented the Heinz dilemma to 10, 13 & 16 year olds. Children were asked if Heinz should steal the drug to heal his wife or not. Heinz was NOT interested in the answer the children gave, but was interested in their reasoning behind the answer given.
Level 1: Preconventional Morality
Those in Preconventional Morality (low) find that rules are external and people obey rules to avoid punishment or obtain personal rewards - i.e. The wife is nice so Heinz should save her.
Level 2: Conventional Morality
Those in Conventional Morality (medium) obey rules to win others approval or to maintain social order - i.e. Heinz will be a hero if he saves his wife!
Level 3: Postconventional Morality
Those in Postconventional Morality (high) believe that broad principles of justice may conflict with written law - i.e. Heinz should steal the drug because it is unjust to let someone die just because they don't have enough money.
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development (Birth – 1yr)
Basic Trust vs Mistrust - Attachment (Mother)
Strong affectional ties we feel for the special people in our lives
Why Do We Develop Attachments? (Behaviorist)
I love you because you feed me!
Behaviorists: You feed me, I like eating, so you become a secondary reinforcer, so I love you.
Watson once said “Children don’t need love they need cleanliness.”
Why Do We Develop Attachments? (Against Behaviorists)
Spitz - Kids in orphanage with no physical contact and good nutrition (1/3 died) which those in virtual prison with a lot of physical contact and no nutrition (none died)

Goldfarb - He looked at all orphans (1 yr vs. 3 yr in an orphanage). They found that even at 3 yrs of age, they had significantly lower IQs, more social problems, and have language deficits. This proved that there must be something else besides food/basic providing that is so important in the development of children. That something is physical contact and attachment.
Harry Harlow
When given choice between Wire Mother (Food) and Cloth Mother (No Food, monkeys spent 90% of time with cloth mother.
Secure Base
Close physical contact can alleviate anxiety (monkeys). Attachment is developed because of comfort, not food.
Secure Attachment
Separated - - upset
Reunited - - happy
65% of kids
Avoidant Attachment
Separated - - not upset
Reunited - - not happy
20% of kids
Resistant Attachment
Separated - - VERY upset
Reunited - - not happy, angry
10% of kids
Disorganized/Disorientated Attachment
Separated - - mixed
Reunited - - mixed
5% of kids
Mother’s of Securely Attached Children
Respond promptly
Positive Affect
Reciprocal interactions
Mother’s of Avoidantly Attached Children
Mother’s of Resistantly Attached Children
Mother’s of Disorganized Children
Summer Camp Study
The importance of the summer camp study is that they took 40 kids and studied them from birth. Their attachment was all classified as infants. Those who were originally classified as securely attached kids were more socially skilled and were more likely to have close friends than those who were classified as insecurely attached. This shows that attachment has important implications in our future, at minimum in the social area.
How does family influence each other?
Direct influences are those between a dyad in a group. Any pair of family members are affected and effect each others behavior. (i.e. Mom and baby).

Indirect influences mean that any relationship between two individuals is usually influenced by a third person. (i.e. relationship between mom and dad affects their relationship with their child).
Parenting Styles
Control - Regulation and supervision by parents of children

Warmth - Amount of support and affect that a parent displays
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles
High Control, High Warmth - Authoritative

High Control, Low Warmth - Authoritarian

Low Control, High Warmth - Permissive

Low Control, Low Warmth - Uninvolved
Authoritative Child
Achievement orientated
Cooperative with adults and peers
Authoritarian Child
Permissive Child
Self Centered
Lack of Self Control
Uninvolved Child
Does everyone parent the same?
Social Class Variations in Child Rearing
Ethnic Differences in Child Rearing
Economic Distress Hypothesis
Shows that it is hard to be a good parent when your life is difficult (when yo.u are hurting for $$). Not having money leads to a lot of negativity including family distress, depressed moods, excessive worrying, marital conflict, etc. that the child picks up on and becomes emotionally on edge. As a result the children tend to act less mature and stable which causes antisocial conduct and adjustment problems.
Social Class Variations in Child Rearing (Economically disadvantaged)
Refers to the idea that compared to middle class parents, poor/working class/economically disadvantaged parents are more likely to stress obedience, are more authoritarian (more restrictive), reason less with their children and show less affection. This is because (1) life is more difficult when you are worried about finances and (2) they are teaching their children what it takes to be a working class individual - you have to appease your boss and obey authority figures because it will benefit you in the future.
Ethnic Variations in Parenting Styles
Hispanics - have a particular respect for the male in the family and have very closeknit families which has been shown to be beneficial in reducing stress related to acculturation (learning and being accepted into a new culture).

African Americans - No Nonsense parenting is usually limited to single-parent, urban African American households. They are inclined to demand strict obedience which will keep their kids in line. This approach tends to work because these children tend to be more academically achieving, more socially and cognitively competent, and less likely to get into trouble or fall in with a bad peer group.
An estimate of how much a trait, behavior, or phenomenon is explained by genes
Passive Genotype
The home environment that parents provide is in part based on their own genes.
The Mozart Effect
Whatever outcomes we attribute to parenting is really little more than a reflection of genetics. This emphasizes the importance of genetics in child outcomes.
Evocative Genotype
Child’s genetics will affect the way others behave toward them
Active Genotype
Environments children prefer and seek out will be those compatible with their genetic predispositions
Social Psychology
The scientific study of how individuals influence and are influenced by other people.
The Jeremy Strohmeyer Story
Suggests that the influence of parents in child outcomes is limited to the home and rarely affects their children's behavior outside of the home. This supports the idea that peers and social groups are more important than genes.
A change in behavior because of real or imagined group pressure.
Asch 1958
Asch was a researcher who studied compliance. He had participants come into the lab and had them look at a line on a board. They were supposed to identify which line in a set of three presented to them best matched the length of the original line. Participants were always seated so that they would answer last in a lineup of people (all the others actually worked for the researcher). These "fake" participants would all purposely select the wrong line and Asch looked to see if the real participant would comply and go along with everyone. 25% of participants conform MOST of the time, 50% conform SOME of the time, and 25% never conform.
Why do people comply?
Informational Social Influence - They must be right!

Normative Social Influence - I really want them to like me!
Behaving in a certain way because an authority figure has instructed you to do so. (Abu Ghraib and Holocaust)

Authoritarian Personality (Milgrim Study)
How do you reduce obedience?
If you want to reduce obedience, you can either DECREASE the physical proximity (closeness) of the AUTHORITY FIGURE (i.e. having the researcher call in commands instead of being present in the room reduces obedience) or INCREASE the physical proximity (closeness) of the VICTIM (i.e. when the learner is in the same room obedience drops to 40%, and when people have to actually pick up the victims hand and place it on a shock plate obedience drops to 20-30%).
Bystander Apathy
When having people around you makes you less likely to help someone else (and even yourself - evident in the video where smoke was pouring into the experiment room). Having just one other person present drops the chance that you will attempt to get help to 60%. (Kitty Genovese)
Foot-in-the-door technique
Once people comply with a small request, they are more likely to comply with a bigger one (Drive carefully study)
Reciprocity Norm
Giving something so that they return the favor (Pregifting)
An association between an act or object and an evaluation (How you think about something)
Making our attitude fit our actions
We like there to be consistency between our actions/choices and our attitudes (Photo)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
when our actions (behaviors) do not match our beliefs (attitudes), then we change our ATTITUDE to be consistent with our behavior. This only happens however when there is not a sufficient justification (good reason) for our behavior.

This theory is shown through the Boring experiment where participants came into the lab and did a very boring experiment and then were asked to recruit new participants by telling them how great the experiment is. Half of them were paid $1 (minimum wage at this time) to recruit and the other half was paid $20 (a lot of money at this time) to recruit. Afterwards, both groups were asked how much they liked the experiment. Those who were paid only $1 said they liked the experiment more - this is because they did not have a sufficient reason for their BEHAVIOR of
telling people how great the experiment was so they changed their ATTITUDE and claimed that they must have really liked the experiment. On the other hand, those who were paid a whopping $20 had sufficient reason for their BEHAVIOR of telling people how great the experiment was so they did not need to change their ATTITUDE of disliking the experiment.

Dr. Mitchell also used the example of students choosing to come to UC Davis as an example of this effect. If you only received financial aid to come to Davis and that made the decision for you, then you will probably not rate Davis as high as someone who had a choice and chose Davis because you have sufficient justification for choosing to come to Davis.
What do you think caused someones’ behavior?

The situation (Child soldiers)
Their personality
Actor-Observer Difference
Self- - - Situation
Other - - - Disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
Correspondent inference - to inference a correspondence between ones’ behavior and their personality

The Hypothetical example under Fundamental Attribution Error is related to the pictures shown about the civil war in Sierra Leon where children were stolen and forced to be soldiers (they were largely responsible for amputations and torture of other children). When people are told that a child soldier had a CHOICE to hurt or not hurt someone, they were rated a "great person" if they did not hurt anyone, and an "evil bad person" if they hurt someone. This makes sense. However, when people are told that the child soldier had NO CHOICE (they were forced) to hurt or not hurt someone, we still rate them as an "evil bad person" even when they had no choice because of the Fundamental Attribution Error.
An unjustifiably negative attitude toward a group.
Three faces of Prejudice
Beliefs--all “those” people are terrorists

Emotions--hostility, suspicion

Ingroup--Outgroup Bias
Ingroup Bias - Enhance in group, hurt out group

Out group homogeneity - There all stupid (do not acknowledge differences)

Brown-eyes Blue eyes
One male with multiple females

High Female - Low Male Investment
One female with multiple males

Low Female - High Male Investment
Groups that mate together

High Group Investment
One male with one female

High Female and High Male Investment
Parental Investment Explanation of Mating Patterns
Parental investment is the time, energy & risk to survival involved in producing, feeding, or otherwise caring for each offspring. When there is unequal parental investment (like in humans - females are more invested), the more invested sex (females) will be more competed for (by the males/less invested sex) and be more discriminating in choosing a mate (females can be more picky).
Social Monogamy
Paring for male and female to raise children
Sexual Monogamy
Fidelity in copulation between that male and female
Human Sexual Mating Patterns
Mix of polygyny and monogamy
-Human babies take a lot of care
-Human babies derive needed support from fathers (e.g., resources &protection)
-Every culture has long-term mating bonds
-Experience romantic love and jealousy
Evolution and Attraction
Men look for younger women

Women look for status and financial security
Benefits to Extra-Pair Mateships
Women - better genes

Men - more mates
Mere exposure effect can create love
Physical Attractiveness
People like people who are attractive (and at the very least as attractive as them)
People are attracted to people that are similar to themselves
Companionate Love
Deep affectionate attachment
- Equity (Giving what you get)
- Intimacy (self disclosure)
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
Why are People Aggressive?
Frustration - aggression principle

I learned it by watching you!

Not a healthy release
Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development
Human beings are driven by powerful biological urges that must be satisfied.

Conflict between societal norms and urges
Three Components of Personality
Id - Pleasure
Ego - Middle Man
Superego - Moral Conscience/Societal Norms
Stages of Personality Development
Oral Stage (Birth to 1 Year; Mouth)
Anal (1-3 yrs;Anus)
Phallic Stage (3-6yrs; genitals)
Latent Period (6-puberty)
Genital Stage (adulthood)

If a child resolves the Oral Stage appropriately, they can internalize rules, morals and values of a given society. Individuals who do not resolve the Anal Stage appropriately will become overly "anal" later in life. If you resolve the Phallic Stage appropriately, you should have an appropriately developed moral character and gender identity. The Latent Period is just related to intellectual processes. If you resolve the Genital Stage appropriately, you should have a good developed moral conscience, a good idea of rules and norms, and an appropriate gender identity (essentially everything that was achieved already in previous stages).
Oedipus Complex
Want to kill father and marry mother. Best way to get through stage is to emulate father (better gender identity)
Electra Complex
Is part of the Phallic Stage of personality development. According to Freud (take this with a grain of salt), girls are in love with their dad but believe that their mom removed their own penis. This causes anxiety because girls now suffer from "penis envy" and since girls are never able to get a penis they never get out of this stage. As a result, girls will always be morally inferior to boys, but they can improve if they have a male child.
Freud’s Defense Mechanisms
How do you deal with the anxiety produced by the conflict between societal norms and dark urges?

Reaction Formation
Avoid painful thoughts by forcing them into the back of our mind
Refusing to perceive “reality” in order to protect ourselves from it
Acting like a child to avoid being an adult
Making it seem okay
Taking it out on someone else
Seeing yourself in others (attributing ones undesirable behavior to someone else)
Reaction Formation
Presenting yourself as opposite as what you really are (Phil)
The Search For Personality Traits
People have personality characteristics that are consistent, measurable, influence behavior and differ across people
The Big Five Model
People differ on five traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience)

Standing on one not related to standing on another

Traits meaningfully predict behavior
Tendency to experience unpleasant emotions (Monica)
Tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of others
Tendency to be compassionate toward others
Tendency to be perfectionists
Openness to Experience
Tendency to enjoy new things
Is Personality Genetic?
Might Just Be!
Twin Studies
Adoptive Studies

Personality is consistent over time
How Consistent is Personality Over Time?
Pretty Consistent!
Objective Tests
MMPI is an objective test made up of questions that were originally given to mental patients and orderlies. An individual's overall pattern of responding sheds light on predicting disorders for that person

-I attend religious services frequently
-Occasionally I tease animals
-I believe that I have a special relationship with God.
Projective Tests
Tell me what you see(Inkblots)
Thematic Apperception Test
What is happening in this picture?

Answers for the TAT can be classified as either high or low in need for achievement. This just means that the stories patients give are goal-oriented or not. Their responses provide therapists with insight about their personality (if they have a high or low need to achieve things).
Implicit Personality Tests
IAT: The Murderer Study

Attempt to find underlying unconscious personality traits. NORMAL participants are slower at pairing violent words with pleasant words than with unpleasant words. This is because we associate violence with unpleasantness at an unconscious level.

MURDERERS can pair violent words equally as fast with pleasant and unpleasant words. This is because they DO NOT associate violence with unpleasantness.
What is a Psychological Disorder?
A harmful dysfunction
In the stone age they made holes in the skull of those believed to be possessed by devils and demons so that the demons could escape
The Asylum Movement
Freak show of insane people removed from general society
Phillipe Pinel
-Humane treatment of patients
-Removal of restraints
-Categorize patients by disorder
-Talked to them
Modern Perspectives on Treatment
Psychodynamic perspective
Cognitive-behavioral perspective
Biological approach
Family Systems approach
Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud looked at 3 classes of psychopathology (neuroses, personality disorders, and psychoses) and their relation to disturbances along two dimensions (love and work). You should just know that Normal people have good functioning along the two dimensions, Neurotic people have minor difficulties in functioning, Personality Disordered individuals have moderate difficulties in functioning, and Psychotic individuals have major difficulties in functioning.
Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective
marries learning theory with cognitive theory. They focus on the negatively recurring thoughts that facilitate psychopathology. They are very focused on the influence of the environment (based on the chart).
Biological Perspective
Roots of mental disorders in brain circuitry (more nature)
Family Systems Approach
Views an individual's symptoms as symptoms of family dysfunction
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Delusions: false beliefs firmly held despite evidence to the contrary

Hallucinations: sensory perceptions that occur without an external stimulus (hearing voices)
Types of Symptoms of Schizophrenia
-Delusions and hallucinations

-Flat affect and socially inappropriate behavior

-Everyone is out to get you

-marked by immobility, rigidity of the body and parrot-like repeating of what someone says or does

-arked by disorganized speech, stream of consciousnesss, bizarre behavior, and flat/inappropriate affect.

-Everyone who does not fit into above groups
Diathesis-Stress Model
Born with genetic disposition but requires environmental stress to occur
Genain Quadruplets
Four identical quadruplets all with schizophrenia (shows genetic component)
Dopamine hypothesis
Too much - - positive symptoms
Too little - - negative symptoms
Neuronal Atrophy
Neuronal atrophy is when there are enlarged fluid-filled ventricles or cavities in the brain due to degeneration/eating away/dying off of the brain. This occurs most often in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. It is interesting that the severity of auditory hallucinations is related to the degree of atrophy in the region of the brain specializing in auditory processing.
The Family and Schizophrenia
Expressed emotion - criticism, hostile interchanges, emotional over investment and intrusiveness by family member

There is nothing you can do make a child schizo or not, but you can prevent rehospitalization once they are
Anxiety Disorders
Those who worry too much

Most frequent
Symptoms of Anxiety
Intense, frequent, and irrational fears or apprehension
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Constantly plagued by exaggerated worries
-I might get sick

Coexists with depression
Panic Disorder
Attacks of intense fear and feelings of doom or terror not justified by the situation
Irrational fears focused on a specific object, activity or situation that disrupt behavior
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessions: persistent thoughts or ideas

Compulsions: intentional behaviors or mental acts performed in response to an obsession
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Recurrent thoughts of psychologically distressing events
Explaining Anxiety Disorders
Genes and the Environment
-Brain hardwired to respond to threat
-Stressful life events
-Learning (Classical Conditioning)
Dissociative Disorders (Dissociative Identity Disorder)
The existence in an individual of two or more distinct identities or personalities
Symptoms of Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Disorders are characterized by disruptions in consciousness, memory, sense of identity and perception. Individuals with this disorder experience periods of amnesia (i.e. they are unaware as to how they got to a new town/location). One specific type is Dissociative Identity Disorder (formerly Multiple Personality Disorder) which is when a person has 2 or more distinct identities that alternatively control the person's behavior.
Explaining Dissociative Disorders
-Little influence of genes
-Physical and/or sexual abuse
-Mostly women
Personality Disorders
Enduring maladaptive patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior that deviate markedly from the expectations of society
Symptoms of Personality Disorders
Chronic disturbances in interpersonal and occupational functioning
Anti-Social Personality Disorder
Irresponsible socially disruptive behavior (show no remorse and can be very charming and intelligent like Ted Bundy)

When the BIOLOGICAL parent of an adoptee has anti-social personality disorder, the child is 3 times more likely to exhibit agressive behavior.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder is when an individual has extremely unstable interpersonal relationships and interactions. They have dramatic mood swings and unstable sense of identity. They have intense fears of separation and abandonment, are manipulative, and demonstrate/participate in impulsive behavior. Many individuals with this engage in self-mutilation (carve words in arms, burn skin w/ cigarettes, and wrist slashining). It is found predominantly in women, particularly those with a mother with bad attachment history, a male relative who is abusing them, and a family history of impulsivity.
Explaining Borderline Personality Disorder
-Genetic evidence is not clear
-Chaotic home life
-Sexual abuse
Mood Disorder
A condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances.
Symptoms of Mood Disorders
Characterized by disturbances in emotion and mood

Overly Negative - - depression
Overly Positive - - mania
Types of Mood Disorders
Major Depression
Bipolar Disorder

Happens over series of months with little interest, pleasure and motivations
Explaining Depression
Genes (doubles in family)
The Brain (too little serotonin in brain)
Environmental Factors (more likely to be raised in hostile home environments)
Gender (twice as likely to be female)
The Cognitive Behavioral Cycle of Depression
Negative Events
Negative interpretation of events
Negative Behaviors
Social Rejection and loneliness
Postpartum Depression
Dramatic hormonal imbalances immediately following the birth of a child (mostly women).
Gender & Depression
Men - - try to distract themselves

Women - - ruminate about the issue
Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar individuals alternate between cycles of mania and depression. When in mania, they experience abnormally elevated/expansive mood and have an inflated sense of self that can reach grandiose proportions. They exhibit irratic behavior, need less sleep, experience racing thoughts, and have a constant need to talk. They have excess serotonin.

When in unipolar depression, they are listless, experience no pleasure, are overwhelmingly tired, have feelings of worthlessness and are dispassionate about everything. They have too little serotonin.
Psychodynamic Therapies
Change = insight and the power of the client-therapist relationship

Insight- What is going on in your head
Therapeutic-alliance: Must feel comfortable with your therapist
Explaining Bipolar Disorder
Genes (80-90% in family)
Neural Transmission
Environmental Factors (Chaotic homes)
Psychodynamic Techniques
Free association
-Make the unconscious conscious

-Therapist helps patient understand their experiences in a new light

Analysis of Transference
-when the patient "plays out" interpersonal scenarios with their therapist. For example, if their father is abusing them, they would have the therapist "play" the Father and the patient would act out various scenarios. This demonstrates maladaptive relationship patterns.
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Change = change in the cognitions or behaviors that are causing problems

Assign homework, give behavioral strategies, and ask questions
Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques
Systematic Desensitization (mentally confront phobia while relaxed)

Exposure techniques
-Flooding (real stimuli all at once)
-Graded exposure (real stimuli but a little at a time)
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
Change the interpretation (internal beliefs) of negative events
Humanistic Therapy
Client-Centered Therapy

Listen without judging or interpreting
Humanistic Therapy Techniques
Unconditional positive regard

Active listening
-Seek clarification
-Reflect feelings
Biological Treatments
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Psychotropic medication (work on neurotransmitters)
-Anti-anxiety medication (SSRI)
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Induces seizures, but no idea why it works as a last resort
Lobotomy - Destroys connections in prefrontal cortex