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83 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The most common disease of young children in developed nations is:
Tooth Decay
Kindra, age 4, is very particular about her daily routines, especially at mealtime. She will only eat from one certain plate, drink from one certain cup, and must have a folded napkin next to her plate. She is exhibiting the phenomenon of:
Just Right
The best advice for parents to improve their child's diet and promote healthy eating habits is to:
Discuss with Pediatrician
The ability to generate several thoughts in rapid succession is most specifically related to:
Myelination
The differentiation and specialization of the functioning of the two halves of the brain is called:
Lateralization
Kayla is 4 years old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more efficiently. This development may be attributed to:
Corpus Callosum
Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:
Attention and Memory
Prefrontal Cortex
The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience:
Fear and Anxiety
Writing your name is a ______, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) ______.
Skill, Achievement
For preschoolers, the cause of accidental death is most likely from:
Violence
Mothers who are depressed, financially stressed, and whose infants tend to have difficult temperaments are more likely to:
Maltreat their kids
Allie's mother likes to spend her days staying home, watching television and talking on the phone. At five, Allie has had little experience outside the home. Allie's learning will be:
Suffered
Secondary prevention always involves:
High Risk Situations
The final choice available to child-care specialists in cases of child abuse is:
Adoption
Preoperational intelligence differs from sensorimotor intelligence in that preoperational intelligence:
Includes language and imagination
The Piagetian term for centration in which the child thinks about the world exclusively from his or her personal perspective is called:
Egocentrism
A magician's stock and trade is getting the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he is manipulating another. This is most easy with preoperational children, as they are easily fooled with their tendency to:
Focus on appearance
To assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in:
Static reasoning
Romy understands that if she has four pieces of pizza and we give her two more, she will have six. However, she does not know what happens if she has six and we take away two. Piaget would say that Romy:
Conservation
An experimenter lines up pairs of checkers into two identical rows. Then the experimenter elongates one of the rows by spacing the checkers farther apart. This is a classic test of:
Conservation
Vygotsky suggested that each individual is surrounded by a zone of:
Proximal Development
According to Vygotsky, language is:
a building tool
When a person talks to herself or himself, it is referred to as:
private speech
Vygotsky believed that language advances thinking through:
Private speech and Social Mediation
Humans seek reasons, causes, and underlying principles to explain the world around them. The research term for this is:
Theory-theory
A person's understanding of the emotions, intentions, thoughts, and perceptions of other people is called:
Theory of mind
According to recent research, the development of theory of mind is age related and a function of:
Maturation of the brain's prefrontal cortex.
A “critical period” view of language learning refers to:
A time when a certain development must happen if it is ever to happen.
Fast mapping explains how children are able to:
Learn new words
Caitlin, age 4, visited the city zoo, pointed to a zebra and exclaimed, "Look at the horse with stripes!" In describing the zebra, she used:
Fast Mapping
“I falled down and I hurted myself” is typical of a child when they first are learning grammar. This is an example of:
Overregularization
When learning a second language, the basics of language learning such as the naming explosion, fast-mapping, and overregularization apply:
Balanced Bilingual
A long-held belief that school should begin at first grade has been:
learning potential of the early years
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years is called:
Initiative Vs. Guilt
One difference between shame and guilt is that:
Guilt is a more mature emotion and more internalized
Emotional regulation develops due to:
Mother's emotional expression
Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums in his kindergarten class that lasted much longer than those of his classmates. How might his behavior be explained?
Neurological Damage
Joey fell from his tricycle and skinned his knee. He began to cry and his friend, Andre, also started to cry after watching him fall. Applying research with mirror neurons to this situation, we might say that:
Empathy
Of the different types of aggression, the most serious and threatening is:
Active Aggression
Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. They are demonstrating:
Relational Aggression
One thing bullies and their victims have in common is:
Poor emotional regulation
The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:
Expectation of Maturity
The goal of discipline is:
to teach children desired behavior.
The use of psychological control as a form of punishment may result in the unintended outcome of:
Damage a child's initiative and achievement
Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least two hours a day. Most likely, as he grows older:
he will become more violent
Most American children develop traditional gender-role beliefs, such as that girls “become nurses,” by what age?
4 Years old
Four-year-old Greg is planning on being Spiderman for Halloween; his two-year-old sister is going to be a princess. According to sociocultural theorists, children's choices of costumes supports the notion that:
Gender schema
When you look at the rate of growth for children from ages 7 to 11, you see that:
growth slows down
Childhood obesity is made more complicated by:
Quality of food
Achievement tests are to aptitude tests as:
Aptitude - master a skill
Achievement - what you have learned.
Mental age divided by one's chronological age and multiplied by 100 is the:
Intelligence
Because of better health, smaller families, and more schooling, some nations have exhibited substantial increases in IQ scores. This phenomenon is called the:
Flynn Effect
Although most experts agree that children with attention-deficit disorders may benefit from drug therapy, they also agree that:
They are over and under used in children
A significant delay in a specific area of learning not associated with a physical handicap, mental retardation, or stressful environment is indication of:
learning disability
Maggie has dyslexia. Most likely, she experiences the most difficulty with the ______of words.
Reading
Matthew was diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorder. He experiences difficulty understanding other people's emotions. According to recent research, his difficulty could be attributed to:
Deficit in the brain's mirror neurons
The belief that childhood immunization sometimes causes a pervasive developmental disorder:
MMR (Measles Mumps Rubella)
The most general education context in which children with special needs can be expected to learn is known as:
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
According to Piaget, the distinguishing characteristic of school-age children is that they are:
Concrete operational thought
Piaget underestimated the influence of ______ in understanding cognitive development in children.
Cultural Factors
To teach a child a second language, the most effective approach is to start during:
Middle School (7-11)
The main reason 11-year-olds are better thinkers than 7-year-olds is because:
They use their minds more efficiently
The change in cognition that allows children to focus without becoming distracted, persist at tasks and exhibit quick, efficient memory is a result of the development of:
Knowledge Base
Evaluating a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish and monitor one's performance is called:
Metacognition
In their learning and problem-solving abilities, school-age children differ from preschoolers in that they:
Test Themselves
John has the ability to talk informally with his friends and more formally to his teachers when called on in class. This is because John understands the:
Paragmatics - practical use of language.
Two factors that play important roles in the connection between low SES and language learning are:
Extent of early exposure to language and Expectation
The unspoken and often unrecognized lessons that children learn in school which are the unofficial, unstated, or implicit rules and priorities that influence the academic curriculum and every other aspect of learning in school is called the:
Hidden Curriculum
Despite the battles, both approaches to the teaching of reading share in common the knowledge that:
Phonics is beginning but also to have motivation and vocabulary.
A group of individuals roughly the same age who play or learn together are known as the:
peer group
Children who wish to free themselves from adult influence may be encouraged by their peers to break rules and engage in behavior of which their parents would not approve. Such encouragement may be considered:
Deviancy Training
Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n):
Withdrawn-rejected
The ability that most often distinguishes children who are accepted from children who are rejected is their:
Culture and Cohort
Girls who bully typically:
Are sharp tongued, they harass shyer more soft spoken girls.
A common characteristic of bullies is that they:
1. Seeking attention while being emotionally detached
2. Acting like they are superior to other children
Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the:
Encouraging Friendship
The approximate percentage of school-age children living in a two-parent (husband and wife) family is:
67%
A family's structure is likely to change over time because of:
Children not being around their parents as much (daycare)
The rarest family structure is the:
Polygamous Family (more than 1 wife)
In every nation, two factors that have been identified that interfere with family function are:
Low income and high conflict
According to Erikson's theory, children in middle childhood tend to judge themselves as either:
Industrious or inferior
Because John's mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, John is often neglected. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping him keep his positive attitude?
Resilience - overcome serious stress
The ability of children and adults to naturally try to deal with their problems is known as:
Social Support faith (resilience)