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67 Cards in this Set

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Patterns of behavior used to learn about the world
Scheme
Used current schemes to interpret world (new objects into existing world)
assimilation
Adjust old schemes or create new ones after noticing thinking doesn't fit environment
accommodation
Infants understand world through their actions on it (6 substages)
sensorimotor
Reflexive schemes
infant reflexes -->1mo.
primary circular reations
repeat behaviors oriented toward own body that leads to satisfaction 1-4mo
secondary circular reactions
interesting effects of "accidental" actions on environment 4-8mo
coordination of secondary reactions
combine secondary reactions into complex action sequences 8-12mo
tertiary circular reactions
experimental and creative reactions 12-18mo
mental representation
create mental images (symbols) 18-24mo
circular reactions
repeated behaviors or interesting effects of accidental behaviors
understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight
object permanence
lack understanding that physical characteristics remain the same when appearance changes
conservation
cannot organize objects into classes and subclasses
hierarchial
process by which social becomes personal
internalization
adult adjusts assistance to fit child's current level of performance

Psychologist?
scaffolding



Vygotsky
range of tasks child cannot handle alone but can do with help of a more skilled partner
zone of proximal development
rules governing structure and sequencing of speech sounds
phonology
meaning of words and combinations
semantics
rules governing how words are arranged into sequences
syntax
rule determining how to engage in communication with other
pragmatics
dividing speech stream into appropriate segments
speech segmentation
tendency to hear continuously varying speech sounds as distinct categories
categorical perception
shape bias: using objects' shape to extend label to other examples
perceptual features of objects
observing how words used in sentences to figure out meaning

"this is dax""This is a daxy one"
syntactic bootstrapping
makes language more noticable- exaggerated intonation and loudness, simple words/phrases, emotionally expressive
infant-directed speech
nativist perspective of language dvlpmnt

*Chomsky
language is biologically based- ability present at birth
behaviorist perspective of language dvlpmt

*Skinner
language is acquired through principles of learing
Interactionist perspective of language dvlpmnt
language is product of interaction between biology and experience
awareness and understanding of thought -expands greatly during early-mdl childhood
metacognition
measure learning potential by having child learn something new with examiners help
dynamic test
if test culturally specific knowledge and skills that not all had equal opportunity to learn
test bias
the ability to deal adaptively with novel situations and problems
creative thinking
thinking in unusual directions
divergent thinking
ability to experience emotions of others 21-29 months
empathy
by 18-24 mo, recognize self as separate entity that exists

*Rouge Test (15mo)
self awareness
in uncertain situations, infants use emotional expression of parents to decide how to react

*visual cliff
social referencing
consistent style of reactivity and behavior
temperament
understand and use lable for self (2-3 yrs)
gender labeling
understand that girls become women and boys become men
gender stability
understand gender does not change
gender constancy
process by which children acquire motives, values, and behaviors appropriate for their gender
gender typing
set beliefs and expectations about males and females
gender schemas
2-7 years, language dvlpmnt, make believe play
Preoperational stage
egocentrism, animistic thinking, appearance, not capable of operations, not reversible, fail conservation tasks, lack hierarchial classification
characteristics of preoperational stage
infants and older people only sensitive to distinctions that have meaning in language they hear
categorical perception
language milestones
2mo-cooing,
6mo-babbling,
12mo-first words(5new/day), 18mo-naming explosion, 24mo-combine words
7-11 years, thought is flexible, logical, and organized when applied to present itesm
concrete operational stage
conservation, decentrartion, reversibility, can pass inclusion(beads)
characteristics of concrete operational stage
11 years and older, develop capactiy for abstract, scientific thinking (no longer need concrete objects or events)
Formal operational stage
rehersal(repeat), organization (chunks), elaboration (creating relationship) are examples of?
memory strategies
Multiple Intelligences is who's theory?
Gardners
What are the 9 multiple intelligences?
linguistic,logico-mathematical, musical, spatial, body kinethetic, naturalists, interpersonal (others), intrapersonal(self), existential
Statistics of IQ
mean-100, SD-15, Normal Distribution 70-130
What does IQ predict?
Later IQ, scholastic performance
IQ and SES Status
US middle SES > low SES
IQ and race/ethnicity
Asian children > whites > hispanics > blacks
IQ and gender
females do better in language, males do better in spatial and math/science
What is the Flynn Effect?
IQ scores have gone up 15-20 points since 1950
What are the environment and community influences on IQ?
Family attitudes, parenting, availability of resources, lack of teratogens
Development of emotional expression in infancy
newborns express 2 general expressions -pleasure and distress, 8-9mo can express all basic emotions
Social smiling in infants appears when?
2-3mo
Who came up with Infant Styles and what are they?
Thomas and Chess

easy, difficult, slow to warm up
Who came up with the Theory of Attachment?
Bowlby
What is the Strange Situation?

Ainsworth
Put infants in mildly stressful situation to observe attachment behavior
The four forms of attachment
secure-may or may not cry,
avoidant-not distressed by sep.,
resistant/ambivalent-upset, disorganized-confused when sep.
Development of play during the first 2 years
solitary, parallel,
simple social, cooperative, sociodramatic