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23 Cards in this Set

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Spotlight Effect
Definition: The belief that others are paying more attention to one's appearance and behavior than they really are.
Ex: you wear a ridiculous shirt to class and expect everyone to laugh, but surprisingly, very little people actually noticed
Illusion of Transparency
Definition: The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others.
Ex: You think that if you're happy, that your face will surely show it and everyone will notice, but you are more opague than you think
Other Examples of Self-Awareness
1) Social Surroundings Affect out self-awareness
2) Self-interest colors social judgment
3) Self-concern motivates our social behavior
4) Social relationships help define our self
Self-Concept
A person's answer to the question, "who am i?"
"I am..."
Self-Schema
Beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information
Ex: Athletic, overweight, smart
Self-Reference Effect
The tendency to process efficiently and remember well information related to oneself.
Ex: If asked whether the world "out-going" describes us, we remember it better than a word that applies to someone else.
Possible Selves
Images of what we dream of or dread of becoming in the future.
Ex: the rich self, the thin self, or the underemployed self, the unloved self
Social Experience on Self-Concept
1) Roles we play
2) Social Identities we form
3) Comparisons we make with others
4) Our successes and failures
5) how other people judge us
6) the surrounding culture
Social Comparison
Evaluating one's abilities and opinions by comparing oneself to others
Ex: Given a little pond, a fish feels better. Students threatened by top universities after being the top of their class in high school.
The Looking Glass Self
How we imagine another perceives us as a mirror for perceiving ourselves. But rather than how they think of us, it should be how we perceive them as thinking.
Individualism
The concept of giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Ex: "I am tall" vs "I am a Tsai"
Collectivism
Giving priority to the goals of one's groups (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
Ex: "Went to the movie" vs "I went to the movie"
Dual Attitudes
Differing implicit (automatic) and explicit (consciously controlled) attitudes toward the same object. Werbalized explicit attitudes may change with education and persuasion; implicit attitudes change slowly, with practice that forms new habits.
Ex: When you were younger you feared someone you really respect now.
Self-Efficacy
A sense that one is competient and effective, distinguished from self-esteem, one's sense of self-worth. A bombardier might feel high self-efficacy and low self-esteem.
Children/adults with strong feelings of self-efficacy:persistent, less anxious, less depressed, live longer, more successful
Locus of Control
The extent to which people perceive outcomes as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces.
Ex: "I have no social life" gets a call, "I was just lucky, it won't happen again."
Learned Helplessness
The hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
Ex: Hospitals who only focus on nursing and no independence making people feel like inanimate objects who can't depend on themselves - slower recovery
Self-Esteem
A person's overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth
Ex: See ourselves as attractive, smart, or weak, ugly
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency to perceive oneself favorably
Ex: If score 100% on test, say that you studied really hard but if you get 50% you say that the test was unfair
False Consensus Effect
The tendency to overestimate the commonality of one's opinions and one's undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors
Ex: People who sneak a shower during a shower ban believe others are doing the same thing.
False Uniqueness Effect
The tendency to underestimate the commonality of one's desirable or successful behaviors - Seeing our talents and moral behaviors as unique
Ex: those who drink heavily but use seat belts underestimate the commonality of seat belt use.
Self-Handicapping
Protecting one's self image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure
Ex: "I was out too late the night before" when you know you have a test.
Self-Presentation
The act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one's ideals
Ex: Being more self-conscious in new situations and more modest.
Self-Monitoring
Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression
Ex: "I tend to be what people expect me to be"