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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Psychology
Scientific Study of behavior and mental proccesses.
Psychologists
Ph.D
4-6 years of graduate school
Clinical Psychologists
work with relatively serious problems involving mental and behavioral disorders.
Example: schizophrenia, bi polar.
-Single largest subgroup of psychologists
Counseling Psychologist
work with less serious problems in living.
Exampe: maritial therapy, vocational guidance
Educational Psychologist
study processes related to learning, remembering and thinking.
-train teachers and design curriculm.
School Psychologist
work directly with the students experiencing learning problems or emotional problems.
-also work with students, parents and teachers.
Industrial/organizational Psychologist
Study problems involving work in organizational settings.
Social Psychologist
Study how the individual is influenced by the social environment.
Some topics: aggression, helping behavior, attraction.
Personality Psychologist
Study differences among people with respect to traits.
Example: extroversion, conscientiousness, emontional stability
Developmental Psychologist
Study the hanges that take place as people age.
Experimental Psychologist
Investigate basic psychological processes such as learning, memory and sensation.
*major emphasis on experimental method
Independent Variable
Condition which is manipulated by the researcher to see if it has an effect on the dependent variable.
Dependent Variable
Some aspect of the subjects performance which is measured to see if it has been affected by the independent variable.
Experiment
Research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates events and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior.
-in an experiment the researcher should exercise a high level of control
#1 Characteristic of an Experiment
1. Atleast two groups of subjects:
experimental group-recieves the treatment of interest
control group- does not revieve the treatment of interest
#2 Characteristic of an Experiment
2. Subjects are randomly assigned to treatment condtions- so that groups are similar to each other before the study begins.
#3 Characteristic of an Experiment
3. Groups are treated similarly -so that the only difference between the groups involves the independent variable.
Correlational Research
-Researcher simply measures one naturally occuring variable
-Determines whether it is related to a second naturally occuring variable.
Correlation Coefficient
A number which represents the nature of the relationship between two variables.
#1 Characteristics of Correlation Coefficients
1. Size of the coefficient
r may range nfrom -1.00 through 0.00 through +1.00
-larger the sixe of the coefficient/in absolute magnitude...the stronger the relationship.
.00-no relationship
.10-weark relationship
.70. -strong relationship
1.00- perfect relationship
-.70 is just as strong as +.70
#2 Characteristic of Correlation Coefficients
2. Sign of the correlation
-positive or negative.
Postivie- as values on one varibale increase, values on the second variable also increase.
Negative- as values on one variable increase values on a second variable decrease.
Correlational Research
generally provides week evidence of cause and effect.why?
- nothing is manipulated
-nothing is controlled
- so it is usually possible to generate alternative explainations for research findings.
Conclusion
Correlational research does not provide the strongest evidence of cause and effect relationships why?
-carefully controlled experiments provide stronger evidence of cause and effect relationships.
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
neural networks that fan out from the civs.
-not in brain or spinal cord.
Somatic Divison
responsible for sensation and voluntary movement.
Autonomic Division
responsible for generally involuntary processes.
Sympathetic Divison
prepares the body to deal with an emergency.
-fight or flight
-increased heart rate
Parasympathetic Division
-allows the body to relax
-heart rate decreases
-blood goes to internal organs
-digestion increases.
Autonomic Division
Proccesses are not always involuntary
-biofeedback
-information about ones internal biological procceses.
Neurons
-individual cells that are the smallest units of the nervous system
-allow communication
Cell Body(soma)
Controls: Oxygen utilization, energy production.
Dendrites
short fibers that branch out fromt he cell body and recieve incoming messages.
-many
Axon
single fiber that sends otu going messages from the cell body to other neurons.
-a single fiber that may branch
-most 1-2 inches
-ends at an axon terminal
Synaptic Cleft
soace between axon terminal of one neuron and dendrites of next neuron.
Neurotransmitters
chemicals which travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit activity in the next neuron.
examples: dopamine-
high levels: schizophrenia
Serotonin-
low levels: o.c.d
Action Potential
proccess by which a neuron is depolarized in a surge running down the length of an axon.
-when a neuron fires.
Neuron Firing Rates
Number of action potentials per second
-neurons normally fire at a base rate
-change firing rate to communicate information
Morphine:
Endorphines: chains of amino acids that act like neurotransmitters.
-reduce the perception of pain
Medulla
Breathing, heartbeat, digestion
Reticular Formation
Leaves of arousal, sleeping cycles
-sleep patient
Thalamus
regulates & relays sensory messages to appropriate parts of brain.
-sense and smell
Hypothalamus(below thalamus)
eating, drinking, sleeping. "pleasure centers"
Cerebellum(base of back of brain)
coordination & balance. Links sensory systems to higher cortical areas.
Corpus Callosum (center of brain)
broad band of fibers which links the right and left(strong with language) hemispheres.
-split brain studies
-hempispheric specialization
Hippocampus
Regulates emotion and the formation of new memories. When damaged, patients can often recall events prior to the damage..but cannot form new memories.
Example: Drew barrymore in 50 first dates
Frontal Lobes(most important to humans/evolved most recently)
Planning; self-awareness, thinking;decision-making; problem solving;
- control of muscles
-jim bradey
-phineas gage
-frontal labotomy- surgical procedure to seperate the most forwared part of the frontal love from the rest of the cortex. minmize there dysfuntion and calm their moods.
Parietal Lobes
-Body Sensation
-Touch
-Body Position
Occipital Lobes
Vision
Temporal Lobes
-Hearing
-Language (in left temporal lobe in most people)