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93 Cards in this Set

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What clinical psychologists do
specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders, such as
anxiety, phobias, and schizophrenia.
Gestalt Psychology
The word "Gestalt" means "whole, form, or pattern".
emphasizing that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the
perceived whole is more than the sum of its parts.
The 4 goals of psychology
the Description, Explanation, Prediction, and Control of behavior and Mental Processes.
Double blind technique/study
a procedure in which neither the participants nor the experimenter knows who is in the
experimental and control groups until after the data have been gathered; a control for experimenter bias.
Disadvantages of Survey Research
-Costly
-Time consuming
-Respondents may provide inaccurate information
Experimental Method
the only research method that can be used to identify cause-effect relationships between two or more
conditions or variables.
Humanistic Psychologists
-Abraham Maslow
-Rollo May
-Carl Rogers
Behaviorism psychologists
...are interested in the adaptive significance of behavior.
Social psychologists interests
Their approach to the field focuses on the individual, and attempts to explain how the
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are influenced by other people.
Basic Research
research conducted to seek new knowledge and to explore and advance general scientific understanding.
Applied Research
research conducted specifically to solve practical problems and imrpove the quality of life.
Naturalistic observation
a descriptive research method in which researchers observe and record behavior in its natural
setting, without attempting to influence or control it.
John B. Watson
Who developed Behaviorism?
William James
who developed Functionalism
Experimental group
a group of participants who are exposed to the independent variable, or the treatment.
Control group
A group that is similar to the experimental group and is also measured on the dependent variable at the
end of the experiment, for purposes of comparison. The control group is exposed to the same experimental environment
as the experimental group but is not given the treatment.
Structualism
Which Psyc model used Introspection?
Jorge Sanchez
conducted studies on bias in intelligence testing during the 1930's. He pointed out that both cultural
differences and language differences work agains Hispanic students when they take IQ tests.
Useful theories
generate (create) testable hypotheses and practical solutions to problems.
Evolutionary psychology
the school of psychology that studies how humans have adapted the behaviors required for
survival in the face of environmental pressures over the long course of evolution. eg why most men prefer mates who
are younger then they are.
Sociocultural approaches
focus on how social and cultural factors such as socioeconomic class, educational levels,
ethnicity, race, religion, and occupation affect people’s behavior.
Disadvantages of the Case Study method
-researchers cannot establish the cause of behavior observerd in a ____________, and observer bias is a potential problem.
-because so few individuals are studied, researchers do not know how applicable, or generalizable, their findins may be
to larger groups or to different cultures.
The hypothalamus
regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and a wide variety of emotional behaviors. It also regulates
internal body temperature and houses the biological clock.
blank 1 and 2: left and right handedness
blank 3: left handedness
blank 4: left handed
blank 5: right handed
A majority of both ______ and ______ people are left-brain dominant, that is, language
functions are largely assigned to the left cerebral hemisphere. However, right-brain and mixed-hemisphere dominance occur
more frequently among _______. This difference may explain why learning disabilities are more common among
_________ individuals than those who are __________.
Neurons
the specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system.
Dendrites
In a neuron, the branchlike extensions of the cell body that receive signals from other neurons.
Serotonin
A neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, and
appetite.
Reflexes
an involuntary responce to a stimulus. They start in the brainstem in the medulla.
Severe injury to the medulla
could cause serious damage to a person or even death.
Occipital lobes
the lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information; they contain
the primary visual cortex.
Beta waves
produced by mental or physical activity.
sympathetic nervous system
Any time you are under stress or faced with an emergency, the _______________ automatically mobilizes the
body's resources, preparing you for action.
The pancreas gland
the endocrine gland responsible for regulating the amount of sugar in the bloodstream.
Hormones
______ are messengers
the frontal lobes
Where in the brain was Phineas Gage injured?
the endocrine system
What body system contains the Pituitary gland?
location of the frontal lobe
begins at the front of the brain and extend to the top center of the skull.
Broca's aphasia may result; not able to understand language.
Result of damage to Brocas’ area?
Function of fMRI
-provides images of both brain structure and brain activity
-requires no injections
-can identify locations of activity more precisely than PET can.
-can detect changes that take place in less than a second.
The cerebellum
What part of brain is tested in simple Sobriety tests?
makes up the Limbic System
amygdala and the hippocampus
corpus callosum
The ___________ is the thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerbral hemispheres and makes possible the
transfer of information and synchronization of acttivity between the hemispheres.
Fraternal Twins
In the case of ____________, two seperate sperm cells fertilize two separate eggs that happen to be released at the same time during ovulation.
Sensation
the process through which the senses pick up visual, auditory, and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain.
Perception
the process by which the brain actively organizes and interprets sensory information.
sensory adaptation
the process in which sensory receptors grow accustomed to constant, unchanging levels of stimuli over time.
iris
the ________ is the colored part of the eye that adjusts to maintain a constant amount of light entering the eye through the pupil.
100,000 Hz
dolphins can respond to frequencies up to __________ hz.
first blank: umami

second blank: glutamate
the fifth taste sensation _________, is triggered by the substance __________. this substance is widely used as a flavoring in asian foods, protein rich foods, such as meat, milk, aged cheese, and seafood.
endorphins
the body's own natural painkillers, which block pain and produce a feeling of well-being.
figure ground illusions
as we view the world, some objects often seems to stand out from the background.
monocular depth cues
depth cues that can be perceived by one eye alone
autokinetic illusion
a phenomenon of human visual perception in which a stationary, small point of light in an otherwise dark or featureless environment appears to move.
gestalt principle of closure
we perceive figures with gaps in them to be complete
gestalt principle of proximity
objects that are close together in space or time are usually perceived as belonging together.
cross modal perception
a process whereby the brain integrates information from more then one sense.
kinesthetic sense
the sense providing information about the posistion of body parts in relation to each other and the movement of the entire body or its parts.
vestibular sense
the sense that detects movement and provides information about the body's orientation in space.
size constancy
as objects or people move farther away, you continue to perceive them as being about the same size.
gate control theory
scientists are not certain how pain works, but one major theory that attempts to answer this question is the __________.
absolute threshold of sensation
The _____________ is the minimum amount of stimulation of ANY sense organ that can be detected 50% of the time.
sensory adaptation
the process in which sensory receptors grow accustomed to constant, unchanging levels of stimuli over time.
first blank: rods

second blank: cones
there are about 120 million ________ and 6 million _________ in each retina.
the ossicles
the three smallest bones in the human body
located in the ear
C
the ossicles are connected in which order?
a.)the anvil, the hammer, and the stirrup
b.)the stirrup, the anvil, and the hammer
c.)the hammer, the anvil, and the stirrup
synesthesia
the capacity for responding to stimuli with both unusual perceptions and typical ones.
altered state of consciousness
changes in awareness produced by sleep, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs
melatonin
the hormone _______ induces sleep.
circadian rhythms
The suprachiasmatic nucleus is the body’s biological clock, which regulates ____________.
Circadian rhythms
____________ regulate all vital life functions (like heart rate, blood pressure) as well as learning efficiency and moods.
D
How many states or stages are in NREM sleep?
a.)3, 1 being the lightest and 3 being the deepest sleep
b.)4, 1 being the deepest sleep and 4 being the lightest sleep
c.)6, 1 being the deepest sleep and 6 being the lightest sleep
d.)4, 1 being the lightest sleep and 4 being the deepest sleep
restorative theory of sleep
the best theory for explaining why sleep is important to us is the ___________, which states that the function of sleep is to restore the body and the mind.
manifest content
Freud's term for the content of a dream as recalled by the dreamer.
latent content
Freud's term for the underlying meaning of a dream.
activation synthesis hypothesis of dreaming
the hypothesis that dreams are the brain's attempt to make sense of the random firing of brain cells during REM sleep.
false

they cant be treated by surgery
True or False

sleeping disorders can be treated by surgery.
sociocognitive theory
In _____________ theory hypnosis is believed to be the result of his/her expectations about how a hypnotized person is supposed to behave from watching a person being hypnotized or in movies where hypnosis takes place.
neodissociation
In _____________ theory, the hypnotized person experiences a split between mind and body.
dissociated control
According to the theory of _______________, hypnosis weakens the individual’s ability to control their cognitive and emotional subsystems, allowing the hypnotist to gain influence over them.
scoiocognive theory
neodissociation theory
dissociated control
The 3 main theories proposed to explain hypnosis are the________________ , the ________________ and the theory of _______________.
drug tolerance
a condition in which the user becomes progressiveley less affected by the drug and must take increasingly larger doses to maintain the same effect or high.
Narcotics
a class of depressant drugs derived from the opium poppy that produce both pain relieving and calming effects.
Lucid dreams
a dream that an individual is aware of dreaming and whose content the individual is often able to influence while the dream is in progress.
Stage 4 sleep
the deepest stage of NREM sleep, characterized by an EEG pattern of more than 50% delta waves.
Sleep terrors
________________ occur when a sleeper awakens in a panic state with their heart pounding or racing. They are rarely remembered, but often involve a single, frightening image.
nightmares
Ordinary ____________ are scary dreams that occur during REM sleep like most other dreams, and are often remembered in vivid detail, unlike sleep terrors which take place in Stage 4 NREM.
Myths about hypnotized persons
-hypnotized people are under the complete control of the hypnotist and will violate their moral values if told to do so.
-people can demonstrate superhuman strength and perform amazing feats under hypnosis.
-memory is more accurate under hypnosis.
-people under hypnosis will reveal embarrassing secrets.
-people under hypnosis can relive an event that occured when they were children and can function mentally as if they were that age.
What alcohol does to male sexual functioning
Men tend to become more aggressive and more sexually aroused but less able to perform sexually.
marijuana
an Hallucinogen
true
True or False

not getting enough sleep effects your ability to learn
Choice of drugs by addicted animals?
amphetamines
suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN)
a pair of tiny structures in the brain's hypothalamus that control the timing of circadian rhythms; the biological clock
Result of spending too much time in NREM sleep?
harder to wake up, when wokenup you are confused, not knowing whether it is morning or night, a weekday or a weekend.