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213 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes.
Psychophysics
The study of the relationships between features of physcial stimuli, such as their intensity, and the sensations we experience in response to them.
Introspection
Inward focusing on mental experiences, such as sensations or feelings.
Structuralism
The school of psychology that attempts to understand the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its component parts.
Functionalism
The school of psychology that focuses on the adaptive functions of behavior
Natural Selection
The evolutionary process by which individuals of a species that are best adapted to their environments are the ones most likely to survive and pass along their traits to succeeding generations.
Stream of Conscious
The continuous flow of conscious thoughts.
Behaviorism
The school of psychology that holds that psychology should limit itself to the study of overt, observable behavior.
Gestalt Psychology
The school of psychology that holds that the brain structures our perceptions of the world in terms of meaningful patters or wholes.q
Gestalt
A German word meaning "unitary form" or "pattern."
Unconscious
In Freudian theory, the part of the mind that lies outside the range or ordinary awareness and that contains primitive drives or instincts and unacceptable urges, wishes, or ideas.
Psychodynamic perspective
The view that behavior is inflouened by the struggle between unconscious sexual or aggressive impulses and opposing forces that try to keep this threatening material out of conscious.
Psychoanalysis
Freud's method of psychotherapy; it focuses on uncovering and working through the unconscious conflicts he believed were at the root of psychological problems.
Behavioral Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses on the role of learning in explaining observable behavior.
Social-Cognitive Theory
A contemporary learning-based model that emphasizes the role played by both cognitive factors and environmental or situational factors in determining behavior
Behavior Therapy
A form of therapy that involves the systematic application of the principles of learning.
Humanistic Psychology
The school of psychology that holds that free will and sonscious choice are essential aspects of the human experiences.
Humanistic Perspectives
An approach to the study of psycholgy that applies the principles of humanistic psychology
Physiological Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses on the relationships between biological processes and behavior.
Evolutionary Psychology
A branch of psychology that focuses on the role of evolutionary processes in shaping behavior
Cognitive Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that focuses on the processes by which we acquire knowledge.
Sociocultural Perspective
An approach to the study of psychology that emphasizes the role of social and cultural influences on behavior
Positive Psychology
A contemporary movement within psychology that emphasizes the study of human virtues and assets, rather than weaknesses and deficits.
Basic Research
Research focused on acquiring knowledge even if such knowledge has no direct practical application
Applied Research
Research that attempts to find solutions to specific problems.
Experimental Psychologists
Psychologists who apply experimental methods to the study of behavior.
Comparative Psychology
Psychologists who study behaviorial similarities and differences among animal species.
Physiological Psychologists
Psychologists who focus on the biological underpinnings of behavior.
Clinical Psychologist
Psychologists who use psychological techni8ques to evaluate and treat indviduals with mental or psychological disorders.
Psychiatrists
Medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental or psychological disorders.
Counseling Psychologists
Psychologists who help people clarify their goals, make life decisions, and overcome problems they face in their lives.
School psychologists
Psychologists who evaluate and assist children with learning problems or other special needs.
Educational psychologists
Psychologists who study issues relating to the measurment of intelligence and the processes involved in educational or academic achievement.
Developmental psychologists
Psychologists who focus on processes involving physical, cognitive, social, and personality development
Personality Psychologists
Psychologists who study the psychological characteristics and behaviors that distinguish us as individuals and lead us to act consistently over time.
Social Psychologists
Psychologists who study group or social influences on behavior and attitudes.
Environmental psychologists
Psychologists who study relationships between the physical environment and behavior.
Industrial/organizational psychologists
Psychologists who study people's behavior at work.
Health Psychologist
Psychologists who focus on the relationship between psychological factors and physical health.
Consumer Psychologist
Psychologists who study why people purchase particular products and brands.
Neuropsychologists
Psychologists who study relationships between the brain and behavior.
Geropsychologists
Psychologists who focus on psychological processes involved in aging
Forensic Psychologists
Psychologists involved in the application of psychology to the legal system.
Sport Psychologists
Psychologists who apply psychology to understanding and improving athletic performance.
Emperical Approach
A method of developing knowledge based on evaluating evidence gathered from experiments and careful observation.
Inferences
Conclusions drawn from observations
Theories
Formulations that account for relationships among observed events or experimental findings in ways that make them more understandable and predictable.
Variables
Factors or measure that vary within an experiment or among individuals
Scientific Method
A method of inquiry involving careful observation and use of experimental methods
Hypothesis
A precise prediction about the outcomes of an experiment
Statistics
The branch of mathematics involving the tabulation, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data.
Statistical Significance
A term representing that a finding is unlikely to have been due to chance or random fluctuations
Replication
The attempt to duplicate findings
Case Study Methods
An in-depth study of one or more individuals
Survey Method
A research method that uses structured interviews or questionnaires to gather inormation about groups of people.
Structured Interview
An interview in which a set of specific questions is asked in a particular order.
Questionnaire
A written set of questions or statements to which people reply by marking their responses on an answer form.
Population
All the individuals or organisms that constitute particular groups
Samples
Subsets of a population
Random Sampling
A method of sampling in which each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected
Social Desirability Bias
The tendency to respond to questions in a sociall desirable manner
Volunteer bias
The type of bias that arises when people who volunteer to participate in a survey or research study have characteristics that make them unrepresentative of the population from which they were drawn.
Naturalistic Observation method
A method of research based on careful observation of behavior in natural settings
Correlational method
A research method that examines relationships between variables
Correlation coefficient
A statistical measure of association between variables that can vary from -1.00 to +1.00
Experimental Method
A method of scientific investigation involving the manipulation of independent variables and observation or measurement of their effecs on dependent variables under controlled conditions
Independent variables
Factors that are manipulated in an experiment.
Dependent variables
The effects or outcomes of an experiment that are belived to be dependent on the values of the independent variables.
Control groups
Groups of research participants in an experimental study who do not receive the experimental treatment or intervention
Random Assignment
A method of randomly assigning research participants to experimental or control groups
Placebo
An inert substance or experimental condition that resembles the active treatment.
Placebo Effects
Positive outcomes of an experiment resulting from a participant's expectations about the effects of treatment rather than from the experimental treatment itself
Single-blind Studies
In drug research, studies in which research participants are kept uninformed about whether they are receivin the experimental drug or a placebo
Double-Blind Studies
In drug research, studies in which both participants and experimenters are kept uninformed about which participants receive the active drug and which receive the placebo.
Ethics Review Committees
Committees that evaluate whether proposed studies meet ethical guidelines
Social Desirability Bias
The tendency to respond to questions in a sociall desirable manner
Volunteer bias
The type of bias that arises when people who volunteer to participate in a survey or research study have characteristics that make them unrepresentative of the population from which they were drawn.
Naturalistic Observation method
A method of research based on careful observation of behavior in natural settings
Correlational method
A research method that examines relationships between variables
Correlation coefficient
A statistical measure of association between variables that can vary from -1.00 to +1.00
Experimental Method
A method of scientific investigation involving the manipulation of independent variables and observation or measurement of their effecs on dependent variables under controlled conditions
Independent variables
Factors that are manipulated in an experiment.
Dependent variables
The effects or outcomes of an experiment that are belived to be dependent on the values of the independent variables.
Control groups
Groups of research participants in an experimental study who do not receive the experimental treatment or intervention
Random Assignment
A method of randomly assigning research participants to experimental or control groups
Placebo
An inert substance or experimental condition that resembles the active treatment.
Placebo Effects
Positive outcomes of an experiment resulting from a participant's expectations about the effects of treatment rather than from the experimental treatment itself
Single-blind Studies
In drug research, studies in which research participants are kept uninformed about whether they are receivin the experimental drug or a placebo
Double-Blind Studies
In drug research, studies in which both participants and experimenters are kept uninformed about which participants receive the active drug and which receive the placebo.
Ethics Review Committees
Committees that evaluate whether proposed studies meet ethical guidelines
Informed Consent
Agreement to participate in a study following disclosure of information about the purposes and nature of the study and its potential risks and benefits.
Critical thinking
The adoption of a skeptical, questioning attitude and careful scrutiny of claims or arguments
Neurons
Nerve cells
Brain
The mass of nerve tissue encased in the skull that controls virtually everything we are and everything we do.
Soma
The cell body of a neuron; contains the nucleus of the cell and carries out the cell's metabolic functions.
Axon
The tubelike part of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body toward other neurons
Terminal Buttons
Swellings at the tips of axons from which neurotransmitters are dispatched into the synapse.
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that transport nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another
Synapse
The small fluid-filled gap between neurons through which neurotransmitters carry nural impulses
Dendrites
Treelike structures projecting from the soma that receive neural messages from neighboring neurons
Sensory Neurons
Neurons that transmit information from sensory organs, muscles, and inner organs to the spinal cord and brain.
Motor Neurons
Neurons that convey nerve impulses from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.
Glands
Body organs or structures that produce secretions
Hormones
Secretions from endocrine glands that help regulate bodily processes.
Interneurons
Nerve cells in the central nervous system that connect neurons to neurons; in the brain, they are involved in processing information.
Glands
Body organs or structures that produce secretions
Hormones
Secretions from endocrine glands that help regulate bodily processes.
Interneurons
Nerve cells in the central nervous system that connect neurons to neurons; in the brain, they are involved in processing information.
Nerve
A bundle of axons from different neurons that transmit nerve impulses.
Glial cells
small but numerous cells in the nervous system that support neurons and that forms the myelin sheath found on many axons.
Myelin Sheath
A layer of protective insulation that covers the axons of certain neurons and helps speed transmission of nerve impulses
nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath that create noninsulated areas along the axon
Multiple Sclerosis
A disease of the central nervous system in which the myelin sheath that insulates axons is damaged or destroyed.
Ions
Electrically charged chemical particles
Resting potential
The electrical potential across the cell membrane of a neuron in its resting state
Depolarization
A positive shift in the electrical charge in the neuron's resting potential, making it less negatively charged
Action Potential
An abrupt change from a negative to a positive charge of a nerve cell, also called a neural impulse
All-or-None Principle
The principle by which neurons will fire only when a change in the level of excitation occurs that is sufficient to produce an action potential
Refractory Period
A temporary state in which a neuron is unable to fire in response to continued stimulation
Receptor Site
A site on the receiving neuron in which neurotransmitters dock.
Reuptake
The process by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the transmitting neuron
Enzymes
Organic substances that produce certain chemical changes in other organic substances through a catalytic action.
Neuromodulators
Chemicals released in the nervous system that influence the sensitivity of the receiving neuron to neurotransmitters
Antagonists
Drugs that block the actions of neurotransmitters by occupying the receptor sites in which the neurotransmitters dock
Schizophrenia
A severe and chronic psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behaviors.
Hallucinations
Perceptions experienced in the absence of external stimuli.
Delusions
Fixed but patently false beliefs, such as believing that one is being hounded by demons
Parkinson's disease
A progressive brain disease involving destruction of dopamine-producing brain cells and characterized by muscle tremors, shakiness, rigidity, and difficulty in walking and controlling fine body movements
Agonists
Drugs that either increase the availability or effectiveness of neurotransmitters or mimic their actions.
Stimulants
A drug that activates the central nervous system, such as cocaine or nicotine.
Amphetamines
A class of synthetically derived stimulant drugs, such as methamphetamine or "speed."
Antidepressants
Drugs that combat depression by affecting the levels or activity of neurotransmitters in the brain
Endorphins
Natural chemicals released in the brain that have pain-killing and pleasure-inducing effects.
Nervous System
The network of n erve cells for communicating and processing information from within the outside the body
Central Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
Spinal Cord
The column of nerves that transmits information betweent the brain and the peripheral nervous system
Spine
The protective bony column that houses the spinal cord
Reflex
An automatic, unlearned response to particular stimuli.
Spinal Reflex
A reflex controlled at the level of the spinal cord that may involve as few as two neurons
Peripheral Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that connects the spinal cord and brain with the sensory organs, muscles, and glands
Somatic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits information between the central nervous system and teh sensory organs and muscles; also controls voluntary movements
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that automatically regulates involuntar bodily processes, such as breathing, heart rate and digestion
Sympathetic Nervous System
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that accelerates bodily processes and releases the stores of energy needed to meet increased physical demands.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that regulates bodily processes, such as digestion, that replenish stores of energy.
Hindbrain
The lowest and, in evolutionay terms, oldest part of the brain; includes the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
Medulla
A structure in the hindbrain involved in regulating basic life functions, such as heartbeat and respiration.
Pons
A structure in the hindbrain involved with sleep and wakefulness.
Brainstem
The "stalk" in the lower part of the brain that connects the spinal cord to higher regions of the brain
Cerebellum
A structure in the hindbrain involved in controlling coordination and balance.
Midbrain
The part of the brain that lies on top of the hindbrain and below the forebrain
Reticular formation
A weblike formation of neurons involved in regulating states of attention, alertness, and arousal.
Forebrain
The largest and uppermost part of the brain; contains the thalamus, limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex.
Thalamus
A structure in the forebrain that serves as a relay station for sensory information and that plays a key role in regulating states of wakefulness and sleep
Basal Ganglia
An assmeblage of neurons lying in the forebrain that is important in controlling movement and coordination
Hypotholamus
A small, pea-sized structure in the forebrain that helps regulate many vital bodily functions, including body temperature and reproduc`tion, as well as emotional states, aggression, and response to stress
Limbic System
A formation of structures in the forebrain that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus; is involved in memory and emotional processing
Amygdala
A set of almond-shaped structures in the limbic system believed to play an important role in aggression, rage, and fear
Hippocampus
A structure in the limbic system invlved in memory formation
Cerebral Cortex
The wrinkled, outer layer of gray matter that covers the cerebral functions, such as thought and language.
Cerebrum
The largest mass of the forebrain, consisting two cerebral hemispheres.
Cerebral hemisphere
The right and left masses of the cerebrum, which are joined by the corpus callosum.
Corpus Callosum
The thick bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
Occipital Lobes
The parts of the cerebral corex, located at the back of both cerebral hemispheres, that process visual stimuli
Parietal Lobes
The parts of the cerebral cortex, located on the side of each cerebral hemisphere, that process bodily sensations.
Somatosensory cortex
The part of the parietal lobe that processes information about touch and pressure on the skin, as well as the position of the parts of our bodies as we move about.
Frontal Lobes
The parts of the cerebral cortex, located at the front of the cerbral hemispheres, that are considered the "executive center" of the brain because of their role in higher mental functions.
Motor Cortex
A region of the frontal lobes involved in regulating body movement
Temporal Lobes
The parts of the cerebral cortex lying beneath and somewhat behind the frontal lobes that are involved in processing auditory stimuli.
Association Areas
Parts of the cerebral cortex that piece together sensory information to form meaningful perceptions of the world and perform higher mental functions.
EEG (electroencephalograph)
A device that records electrical activity in the brain
CT (Computed Tomography) scan
A computer-enhanced imaging technique in which an X-Ray beam is passed through the body at different angles to generate a three-dimensional image of bodily structures
PET (positron emission tomography)scan
An imaging technique in which a radioactive sugar tracer is injected into the bloodstream and used to measure levels of activity of various parts of the brain
MRI (Magnetic Resonance imaging)
A technique that uses a magnetic field to create a computerized image of internal bodily structures.
lesioning
In studies of brain functioning, the intentional destruction of bring tissue in order to observe the effects on behavior
Electrical Recording
As a method of investigating brain functioning, a process of recoding the electrical changes that occure in a specifici neuron or groups of neurons in the brain in relation to particular activities or behaviors
Lateralization
The specialization of the right and left cerebral hemispheres for particular functions.
Electrical Stimulation
As a method of investigating brain functioning, a process of electrically stimulating particular parts of the brain to observe the effects on behavior.
Broca's Area
An area of the left frontal lobe involved in speech.
Wernicke's area
An area of the elft temporal lobe involved in processing written and spoken language
Aphasia
Loss or impairment of the ability to understand or express language
Plasticity
The ability of the brain to adapt itself after trauma or surgical alteration
Stroke
The sudden loss of consciousness and resulting paralysis, loss of sensation, and other disability or death resulting from blockage of blood to a part of the brain or from bleeding in the brain
Prefrontal Cortex
The area of the frontal lobe that lies in front of the motor cortex and that is involved in higher mental functions, including thinking, planning, impulse control, and weighing the consequences of behavior.
Laceration
A type of brain trauma in which a foreign object, such as a bullet or a piece of shrapnel, pierces the skull and injures the brain
Concussion
A jarring of the brain caused by a blow to the head.
Epilepsy
A neurological disorder characterized by seizures marked by suddent, violent discharges of electrical activity in the brain
Split-brain Patients
Persons whose corpus callosum has been surgically severed.
Endocrine System
The body's system of glands that release their secretions, called hormones, directly into the bloodstream
Pancreas
An endocrine gland located near the stomach that produces the hormone insulin
Diabetes
A metabolic disease involving the insufficient production of insulin or failure to efficiently use the insulin that is produced.
Homeostasis
The tendency of systems to maintain a steady, internally balanced state
Pituitary Gland
An endocrine gland in the brain that produces various hormones involved in growth, regulation of the menstrual cycle, and childbirth.
Pineal Gland
A small endocrine gland in the brain that produces the hormone melatonin, which is involved in regulating sleep-wake cycles.
Adrenal glands
A pair of endocrine glands located just above the kidneys that produce various stress-related hormones
Thyroid gland
An endocrine gland in the neck that secretes hormones involved in regulating metabolic functions and physical growth
Gonads
Sex glands that produce sex hormones and germ cells
Ovaries
The female gonads, which secrete the female sex hormones estrogen ad proesterone and produce mature egg cells.
Testes
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete the male sex hormone testosterone
Germ Cells
Sperm and egg cells from which new life develops
Premenstrual Syndrome
A cluster of physical and psychological symptoms occuring in the few days preceding the menstrual flow
genotype
an organisms genetic code
genes
basic units of heredity that contain the individual's genetic code
deoxyribonuleic acid (DNA)
The basic chemical material in chromosomes that carries the individual's genetic code
chromosomes
rodlike structures in the cell nucleus that house the individuals genes
phenotype
the observable physical and behavior characteristics of an organism, repreenting the influences of the genotype and environment
polygenic traits
traits that are influenced by multiple genes interacting in complex ways
Familial association studies
Studes that examine the degree to which disorders or characteristics are shared among family memebers
identical twins
Twins who developed from the same zygote and so have identical genes
zygote
a fertilized egg cell
fraternal twins
twins who developed from separate zygoes and so have 50 percent of their genes in common
twin studies
Studies that examine the degree to which concordance rates between co-twins for particular disorders or characteristics vary in relation to whether the twins are identical or fraternal
Concordance rates
In twin studies, teh percentages of cases in which both memebers of twin pairs share the same trait or disorder
Adoptee Studies
Sudies that examine whether adoptees are more similar to their biological or adoptive parents with respect to the psychological traits or the disorders they develop.