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87 Cards in this Set

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a transitional phase - late teens to mid-twenties --> children leave adolescence but are still some distance from taking on full adult responsibilities --
*explore alternatives
Emerging Adulthood
genetically influence declines in the functioning of organs and systems --universal to all members of our species
biological aging
amount of energy the body uses at rest
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
refers to an array of physical and psychological symptoms that usually appear 6-10 days before menstruation
Premenstural syndrom
the acquisition of extensive knowledge in a field or an endeavor
expertise
in early and middle childhood children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them
VOCATIONAL CHOICE:
1. fantasy period
between the ages of 11 and 16, adolescents think about careers in a more complex way - at first in terms of interest, and soon -- as they become more aware of personal and educational requirements for different vocations -- interests and values
VOCATIONAL CHOICE:
2. tentative period
by the late and early twenties -- young people start to narrow options --
first with further exploration (gathering more information about possibilities that blend with their personal characteristics) then
crystallization, they focus on a general vocational category and experiment for a time before settling on a single occupation
VOCATIONAL CHOICE:
3. realisitic period
age-graded expectations for major life events
social clock
identifies:
intimacy, passion, and commitment as the three components that shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop
sternberg's triangular theory of love
most often experienced by young adults -- an unhappiness resulting from a gap between the social relationships we currently have and those we desire
loneliness
a sequence of phases categorizing the development of most families around the world
family cycle
involving clear division of gender in the home. man is the head of the household; women devotes herself to caring and nurturing
traditional marriage
husband and wife relate as equals, sharing power and authority. Both partners try to balance time and energy for work and family
egalitarian
the midlife transition when fertility declines
climateric
defined by extreme competitiveness, ambition, impatience, hostility, angry outbursts, and a sense of time pressure
Type A behavior pattern
Often determine how an individual is likely to cope with stress -- control, commitment, challenge
hardiness
future-oriented representations of what one hopes to become and what one is afraid of becoming. Possible selves are the temporal dimension of self-concept -- what the individual is striving for and hoping to avoid
possible selves
asserts taht identification with traditional gender roles is maintained through child rearing years in order to promote survival - men are more goal-oriented while women emphasize nurturance
parental imperative theory
Trend in which women who support themselves or their familes are quickly becoming the largest population of adults living in poverty
feminization of poverty
usually the mother -- the individual who keeps the family together - makes sure everyone stays in touch
kinkeeper
used to refer to the generation that must care for multiple generations -- ie generations above and below
sandwich generation
the invisible barrier to advancement that women and minorities face when trying to climb the social ladder
glass ceiling
actual age and performance
functional age
the number of years that an individual born in a particular year can expect to live, starting at any given age
-- varies with SES, ethnicity, nationality, and education
average life expectancy
the number of years of vigorous, health life an individual born in a particular year can expect
active life span
occurs at about the age of 85 -- survigin members of low SES, ethnic minorities groups live longer than members of the white majority
life expectancy crossover
basic self-care tasks required to live on one's own (i.e. bathing, dressing, getting in and out of bed or a chair etc.)
activities of daily living
tasks necessary to conduct the business of daily life and also requiring some cognitive competence (i.e. telephoning, shopping, food preparation, housekeeping, paying bills)
instrumental activities of daily living
the genetic limit to length of life for a person free of external risk factors
maximum lifespan
goal to decrease the average period of diminished vigor before death
compression of morbidity
aging due to genetically influenced declines
primary aging
declines due to herditary and environmental factore
secondary aging
weakened functioning of diverse organs and body systems
frailty
most common type pf arthritis, which involves deteriorating cartilage on the ends of bones of most frequently used joints
osteoarthritis
involves the whole body. An autoimmune response leads to inflammation of connective tissu, resulting in overall stifness, inflammation, and aching.
rheumatoid arthritis
refers to a set of disorders occuring almost entirely in old age in which many aspects of thought and behavior are impaired in such a way that everyday life activities are interrupted
dementia
the most common form of dimmentia, in which structural and chemical brain deterioration is associated with gradual loss of many aspects of thought and behavior
Alzheimer's disease
caused by a series of strokes - producing step-by-step degeneration of mental ability, with each step occuring abruptly after a stroke
cerebrovascular dementia
engaged in by elders who sustain high levels of functioning. Narrowing their goals, they select personally valued activities to optimize returns from their diminishing energy. They also find new ways to compensate for losses.
Selective optimization with compensation
automatic memory; memory with out conscious awareness
implicit memory
difficulty creating and retrieving links between pieces of information
associative memory deficit
very long-term recall
remote memory
remembrance of things past - implicit memory, associative memory, remote memory
retrospective memory
refers to remembering to engage in planned activities in the future
prospective memory
expertise in the conduct and meaning of life; emotional maturity
wisdom
refers to marked acceleration in deterioration of cognitive functioning prior to death
terminal decline
behaviors are attended to immediately
COMPLEMENTARY BEHAVIOR PATTERNS:

Dependency - support script
independent behaviors are mostly ignored
COMPLEMENTARY BEHAVIOR PATTERNS:

independence-ignore script
mutual withdrawal between elders and society takes place in anticipation of death
SOCIAL THEORIES OF AGING:

disengagement theory
states that social barriers to engagement, not the desires of the elders, cause declining rates of interaction. When older people lose certain roles (i.e through retirement), they try to find others in an effort to say about as active and busy as they were in middle age

--> it is the quality not the quantity of relationships that matter
SOCIAL THEORIES OF AGING:

Active Theory
according to this view, most aging adults strive to maintain a personal system--an identity and a set of personality dispositions, interests, roles and skills -- that promotes life satisfaction by ensuring consistency between their past and anticipated future

--> consistency help preserve physical and cognitive functioning, promotes self-esteem and mastery and affirms identity
SOCIAL THEORIES OF AGING:

Continuity theory
addresses how people's social networks sustain continuity while also narrowing as they age. According to this theory, social interaction extends lifelong selection process.

--> older people selectively choose social relationships in order to maintain stability, happiness, and confidence through aging
SOCIAL THEORIES OF AGING:

socioemotional selectivity theory
a long-term care option for the elderly that provides a variety of support services, including meals in a common dining room, along with watchful oversight of residents with physical and mental disabilities
congregate housing
offer a range of housing alternatives, from independent or congregate housing to full nursing home care. For a large initial payment and additional montly fees, life care guarantees that elders' changing needs will be met in one place as they age
lifecare communities
most extreme restriction of autonomy with supervision
nursing home
an influential model of changes in our social networks as we move through life
social convoy
usually accompany older women
-- people who are NOT intimates but with whom they spend time occasionally, such as a group that meets for lunch, bridge, or museum tours
secondary friends
gains are maximized and losses minimized
successful aging
'struggle'; refers to gasps and muscle spasms during the first moments in which the body can no longer sustain life
PHASES OF DEATH:
1. agonal
a short interval follows in which heartbeat, circulation, breathing, and brain functioning stop but resuscitation is still possible
PHASES OF DEATH:
2. clinical
the individual passes into permanent death
PHASES OF DEATH:
3. mortality
1. agonal
2. clinical
3. mortality
3 phases of death
irreversible cessation of all activity in the brain stem -- used in America to define death
brain death
the cerebral cortex no longer registered electrical activity but the brain stem remained active
persistent vegetative state
development of death concept
1. permanence
2. inevitability
3. cessation
4. applicability
5. causation
fear and apprehension of death - lowest in late adulthood
death anxiety
the believe that one will continue to live on through one's children or through one's work or personal influence
symbolic immortality
one that makes sense in terms of the individual's pattern of living and, at the same time, preserves or restore significant relationships and is as free of suffering as possible
appropriate death
a comprehensive program of suppor services for the termninally ill people and their families.
hospice
care that relieve pain and other symptoms of death (nausea, breathing difficulties, insomnia, and depression). Rather than prolonging life.
palliative or comfort care
the practice of ending the life of a person suffering from an incurable condition
--> GENERAL TERM
Euthanasia
life-sustaining treatment is withheld or withdrawn, PERMITTING A PERSON TO DIE NATURALLY
passive euthanasia
a written statement of desired medical treatment should they become incurably ill
advance medical directive
people specify the treatments they do or do not want in case of a terminal illness, coma, or other near-death situation
living will
authorizes appointment of another person to make health care decisions on one's behalf
durable power of attorney
a substitute decision maker, if a patient failed to provide an advance medical directive while competent
health care proxy
doctors or others act directly, at a patient's request, to end suffering before a natural end to life
voluntary active euthanasia
the experience of losing a loved one by death
bereavement
intense physicl and psychological distress
grief
the culturally specified expression of the bereaved person's thoughts and feelings.
mourning
coping -- oscillating back and forth between dealing with the emotional consequences of the situation and attending to changes
dual process model of coping with loss
acknowledging that the loss is inevitable and preparing emotionally for it
--> seen in prolonged dying when time is available to prepare for loss
anticipatory grieving
a sense of loss without the opportunity to mourn publicly and benefit from other's support
--> seen often in gay and lesbian couples
disenfranchised grief
deposits of proteins that accumulation OUTSIDE and around the nerve cells
plaques
twisted fibers that build up INSIDE the nerve cell
tangles
STAGES OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
1. preclinical: memory loss
2. mild to moderate: increased memory loss and confusion - problems recognizing people
3. severe AD: brain has really shrunk away, people are truly dependent on other people