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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Psychology (def)
the scientific study of behavior
study
steps of conducting a scientific study
1. formulate a testable hypothesis
2. Select the research method and design the study
3.Choose subjects and collect data (do the study)(collect the data)
4.analyze the data and draw conclusions
5.report the findings (to other researchers who can repeat the study and verify the findings)
think scientific method
hypothesis (def)
a predicted relationship between 2 variables
variable (def)
any characteristic that can take on different numerical values in different cases and/or at different times
Operational Definition (def)
specific procedure used to measure a variable numericaly
two possible types of reasearch methods
1. experimental method
2. correlational method
experimental method (def)
used to test hypothesis in which one variable is identified as the CAUSE and the other is the EFFECT
C A E
Correlational (descriptive) method (def)
used to determine the degree to which 2 variables are related without identifying cause and effect
crappy
population (def)(
that group to whom the conculsion of the study will apply
like kent state tucs students
sample (def)
is a subset (portion) of the population, those individuals who participate in the study
subject (def)
an individual member of the sample (participant)
data (def)
numerical measurments of variables
conclusion (def)
generalization about the ENTIRE POPULATION
journal (def)
a scholarly periodical that publishes scientific studies in a narrow specialization
scholarly
indepenent variable (def) (IV)
the hypothesized cause; the vaiable that is manipulated
beer consumption
dependent variable (def)
the hypothesized effect; the variable that is measured
grades
control group (def)
recieves zero amount of the Independent Variable; a baseline standard for comparison
experimental group (def)
recieves a specific non-zero amount of the independent variable
data (def more specific)
numerical measues of the dependent variable
why don't people usually do the correlation method
because is cannot prove a direct relationship but sometimes it must be done as to not be unethical
naturalistic observation
the behavior of subjects is observed in their natural environment, with or without the subjects awarness
survey
a pre-determined set of questions used to measure 2 variables
why is thier more than 2 questions on a survey?
to distract the participant from the true meaning of the survey
correlation (def)
is a mathematical method for determining the degree of realtionship between 2 variables (x&y)
Correlation coeficient (r) (def)
a single number that summarizes all the measurments of x and all the measurements of y in a particular sample; will always fall between -1 and +1
what does a - correlation mean
x goes up while y goes down
what does a + correlation mean
x goes up while y goes up
what does a 0 correlation mean
no correlation at all
what is an apropriate conculsion in a corelation method
x an y are realted some how but not nessacarily directly they could be realted by z
nervous (def)
having to do with nerves
nerve (def)
body tissue that is specialized for carrying informtion comprossed of nerve cells
nurons (def)
basic building block of a nervous system
biopschology (physiologiacal psyhology) (def)
the study of the relationship between psysiology and behavior
2 divisions of the human nervous sytem
1. central nervous sytem
2. peripheral nervous system
Central nervous system (def) (CNS)
is all of the neurons of the brain and all of the neurons of the spinal cord (interneurons)
peripheral nervous system (PNS) (def)
consists of 2 types of neurons sensory neurons and motor neurons
sensory neurons (def)
carry info abou tht eexternal environment toward the central nervous system
motor neurons (def)
carry info away form the central nervous system toward the part of the body (usually a muscle) that is to move
steps of motion
1. sensory neurons
2. interneurons
3. motor neurons
why does the brain grow during childhood
1.neurons increase in size (but they dacrease in number)
2.many interneurons (and many sensory and motor neurons) gradually develop a fatty insolation (myelin)
myelin (def)
fatty tissue that covers the axon and increases nerve impluses to 20 times faster than without myelin
soma (cell body) (def)
the main part
dendrites (def)
like split hairs that carry information toward the cell body (soma)
axon (def)
long fiber that carrys info away form the soma (away with axon)
collaterals
innitial split of the axon
terminal button (def)
located at the end of the axon
axon hilluck (def)
junction between the axon and the soma
why does info travel faster with myelin?
because the information doesn't need to cross the axon as many times
nerve impluse (def)
a sinle "jolt" of electricity that goes the length of the axon hillock to the end of the termial buttons
synapse (def)
a juction between 2 neurons typically a junction between a between a terminal button of a "sender" neuron and a dendrite of a "reciever" neuron
Presynaptic membrane (def)
the membrane that covers the termianl button (before the synaptic cleff)
Synaptic cleff (def)
the space between the terminal button and the dendrite
postsynaptic membrane (def)
the membrane that covers the dendrite (after the synaptic cleff)
vesical (def)
small bubble looking things that are inside of the terminal button
psychology of sensation (def)
the study of how the sense organs function
psychology of perception (def)
the study of how the brain interprets information form the sense organ
your sensation is light form the bord but you percieving words
psychology of consciousness (def)
the study of phsiological arousal; the study of psychological awarness of both external and internal stimulation
psychology of memory (def)
the study of how information is retained over time (memory and learning aren't the same)
psychology of personality (def)
the study of individual differences in behavior