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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Thorndike's law of effect and his research on it
Law of effect (principle of positive reinforcement): Things that tend to result in a satisfying state of affairs are repeated; those that result in discomfort are not. This tends to be a fallacy. Thing are often repeated if they are not pleasurable, and this are not often repeated if they are satisfying.
Escape latency
The amount of time it took the subject to escape the puzzle box on each trial
Discrete Trial Procedure
A trial began each time a subject was placed in the puzzle box, and the subject could make one and only one response on each trial. Dependent variable was response latency.
Free Operant
The operant response can occur at any time, and the operant response can occur repeatedly for as long as the subject remains in the experimental chamber.
Response rate
The number or responses made divided by the specific time in which they occurred. The rate of response to a stimulus within a given period of time.
Consequences of reinforcing recurs from a repeated presentation
Restriction of access results in an increase probability of getting the desired stimulus
Positive reinforcer/ment
Strengthens by adding stimulus. Employee bonus etc
Negative reinforcer/ment
Strengthens by subtracting stimulus. Take away alarm clock sleeping will continue.
Premack Principle
Higher frequency behavior can act as a reinforcement for a lower frequency behavior- homework before T.V.. Procedure of reinforcement is often described as contingency between a behavior (the operant response) and a stimulus (the reinforcer). Two elements of a reinforcement contingency are members of two distinct classes of events: reinforceable behaviors one the one hand and reinforcing stimuli on the other.
Stop-action principle
states that because of this strengthening process, the specific bodily position and the muscle movements occurring at the moment of reinforcement will have a higher probability of occurring on the next trial.
Superstitious behavior
Accidental reinforcement of behavior (Skinner’s Pigeons) A behavior is reinforced by a stimulus that is independent of the stimulus when a behavior occurs in close proximity to the deliverance of the stimulus.
Skinner's 1948 experiment on superstition
Superstitious Experiment: Eight pigeons were given a stimulus every 15 min regardless of their activity. Six of the Eight developed distinct behaviors just before the stimulus was to be delivered.
Method of successive approximations) A procedure for teaching a new behavior in which closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior are reinforced
Shaping: Examples in the classroom
Acting interested in the lecture every time the instructor is on the left of the podium, this causing the instructor to fall off the left side of the podium.
Primary Reinforcers
A stimulus that naturally strengthens any response it follows (e.g. food, water, sexual pleasure, and comfort).
Conditioned Reinforcers (Secondary Reinforcers):
A previously neutral stimulus that is acquired the capacity to strengthen responses because it has been repeatedly paired with a primary reinforcer.
Percentile schedule of reinforcement and what it is used for
A reinforcement schedule is a rule that states exactly when a reinforcer will or will not be delivered. A given response is reinforced if it is better tan a certain percentage of the last several responses that the learner has made.
Three-term contingency
A contingency involving a discriminative stimulus, a response, and a reinforcer or punisher
The contingency
states that in the presence of a specific discriminative stimulus, a specific response will lead to specific consequences.
Discriminative Stimulus
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that indicates whether or not responding will lead to reinforcement (sets the occasion or influences the response.
The behavior displayed after a stimulus
A stimulus that strengthens behavior if it is delivered after the behavior occurs
A stimulus that diminishes behavior if it is delivered after the behavior occurs
Generalized reinforcer
A class of reinforcers that are associated with a large number of different primary reinforcers (money) Only acts as a reinforcer if paired with a primary reinforcer
Response chains
A sequence of behaviors that must occur in a specific order, with the primary reinforcer being delivered only after the final response of the sequence.
Forward Chaining
A way of chaining by reinforcing the first response of the chain then gradually adding the second response, the third response and so on.
Backward Chaining
An effective way of chaining by starting with the last response of the chain and working backward.
Total task method
Another way of training is by teaching all the steps of a response chain at once, using verbal instructions to prompt the correct response at each step.
Biological constraints on learning
(instinctive drift, autoshaping)
Instinctive Drift
Innate behavior may ‘creep into’ operantly controlled behavior, dipping raccoon, rooting pig.
A response given by an animal that may be previously learned or incorporate an innate behavior (pigeon pecking at the disk with it’s mouth open)
A rule that states that some event will occur if and only if another event occurs
The idea that two ideas will be associated if they tend to occur together in space or time, important in operant conditioning.
“Behavioralizing” variables Definitions
(Operationalizing variables) To be studied, behavior must be observable and operationally defined.
“Behavioralizing” variables
Must turn adjectives into verbs
Must turn constructs into behavior
Thorndike’s: Discrete trials- Learning curve-behavior that was needed to stop trial
Skinner: Free operant
Allows experiment to be repeated
Can occur at any time
Response rate is measured
Less intrusive to organism