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30 Cards in this Set

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Simplicity:
The smallest number of hypothetical constructs and assumptions is to be preferred.
Generality:
Deal with more phenomena, with a greater range of observations
Fruitfulness:
The ability to stimulate further research and further thinking about a particular topic.
Agreement with data:
How well it coincides with the facts.
The five components by which we judge scientific theories
Testability, Simplicity, Generality, Fruitfulness, Agreement with data
Techniques in comparing theory with data
Anecdotes or Case Histories, Observation Techniques, Experimental Techniques
Anecdotes or Case Histories
Evidence support comes from anecdotes about other people. Cases reported may represent a biased sample. (Reporting only cases where treatment of the disorder was successful. Without knowing the number of cases examined, and the number that supported/unsupported the anecdotes are worthless.
Observation Techniques
Denote a wide range of research methods, including field observations, the use of surveys and questionnaires, and the use of archival data. Experimenter is more or less passive observer. Always involve a systematic effort to obtain a representative sample from the population of interest. Can easily get results with sampling error.
Experimental Techniques:
The researcher actively manipulates the independent variable in some systematic way. The researcher must be careful of Confounding variables (variables that are not of interest to the researcher but can nevertheless affect the results of an experiment), as well as the placebo effect.
Behavioral approach to learning
The traditional approach frequently associated with a general approach to psychology. Heavy reliance on animal subjects, and an n emphasis on external events (environmental stimuli and overt behaviors) Reluctance to speculate about processes inside an organism Goal is to discover general principles of behavior
Cognitive approach to learning
Contains Intervening variables (unobservable constructs that reside between stimulus and response)
Free will
The idea that some nonphysical entity such as will or the soul, can direct human behavior.
Determinism:
A philosophical position that all the events of the world, including all human behaviors, are determined by physical causes that could, at lease in principle, be discovered and analyzed with the techniques of science.
Chaos theory
Provides mathematical techniques for dealing with complex physical systems, and it has been applied to a great variety of scientific topics. One of the themes is that complex physical systems may be inherently unpredictable. One important principle is physical systems have extreme sensitivity to initial conditions. (a tiny change in current conditions can snowball into much larger changes as time passes.
Butterfly effect
Example of Chaos Theory. Small air movements that occur when a butterfly beats its wings could serve as a trigger for larger and larger changes in wind direction and velocity. Some time later, global weather patterns might be different from what they would have been if the butterfly had remained still.
Observable Behavior
Behavior that you can watch
Private behavior
Behavior that is internalized (beneath the skin).
The 4 components of investigating behavior scientifically
Observable, Deterministic, Objective, Empirical
Observable
We only measure and investigate what we can see or hear.
Deterministic
Behavior comes from two sources, environment and genes. Both of which are discovered and analyzed through science
Objective
We have a precise language that characterized behavior without guesswork
Empirical
Rely on a measurement and qualification of behavior through numerical expression
Anthropomorphizing
Attributing human characteristics to nonhuman behavior
Experimental analysis of behavior
Research orientated; strives to discover principles of behavior that generalize across many factors. (Repetition)
Applied behavior analysis
Application of those principles to socially relevant situations
Pavlov
Russian Physiologist won a Nobel Prize for digestion. Looked at different pairing (metronome buzzer) Called this conditioned reflex
Skinner
Developed a better way to examine behavior looking at covert variables and your environment. Developed schedules of reinforcement (let the data drive your research) Reinforced Law of effect (Thorndike) to emphasize the function of behavior
Change
Change is the only constant. Science: What are the principles that determine change?
Selectionism (three properties and how they apply to natural selection and operant and respondent learning)
Fucundity: A surplus of something
Variability: That surplus varies in a particular property
Selection: Some aspect of the variability leads to survival --- It is this behavior that leads to change
Watson:
Called the Father of behaviorism wrote the Behavior Manifesto Wanted only observable behavior analysis. (Little Albert Study) Fears are learned and unlearned. Laid a foundation for clinical psychology.