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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An adequate definition of learning
The ability to respond to short-term (and long-term), local (and overall) changes in our environment.
Process vs. product
Acquisition vs. Performance. Process of acquiring information vs. the product of learning, what was produced and was the information for production acquired.
Acquisition vs. performance
Acquisition of change vs. long-term Acquisition of change vs. long-term changes in an individual’s behavior as a result of learning.
Determining causality
Understanding the relationship between cause and effect.
Independent variable
(cause) The experimenter is “free” to vary the independent variable, as he or she desires. (Controlling the speed of the paddle as it strikes the ball)
Dependent variable
(effect) This depends on some characteristic of the independent variable. (The flight of the ball depends on the speed of the paddle)
Intervening variable
Purely theoretical concepts that cannot be observed directly and used to predict the relationship between the IV and the DV.
The rules and definitions that state how the independent and dependent variables are to be measured and that specify the relationships among independent variables.
(Falsifiablilty) Should make unambiguous predictions that can be tested against the facts. A good theory is one that could, in principle, be proven wrong.
The smallest number of hypothetical constructs and assumptions is to be preferred.
Deal with more phenomena, with a greater range of observations
The ability to stimulate further research and further thinking about a particular topic.
Agreement with data
How well it coincides with the facts
Anecdotes or Case Histories
Evidence support comes from anecdotes about other people. Cases reported may represent a biased sample.
Observation Technique
Denote a wide range of research methods, including field observations, the use of surveys and questionnaires, and the use of archival data. Experimenter is more or less passive observer.