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138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Essentialist view:
The view that gender differences are biologically determined.
2. Minimalist view:
The view that few important differences exist between the sexes
3. Maximalist view:
The view that many important differences exist between the sexes
4. Nature and Nurture:
The impact that biological sex has on male and female differences.

The impact that Social Sex roles and Cultural Concepts have on the development of masculine and feminine differences.
5. Structuralist:
A school of psychology arising in Europe in the 1880s that attempted to understand the workings of the conscious mind by dividing the mind into component parts and analyzing the structure of the mind.
6. Functionalism:
A school of psychology arising in the United States in the late 1800s that attempted to understand how the mind functions, rather than its structure. Functionalists held a practical, applied orientation, including an interest in mental abilities and in gender differences in those abilities. BUT they tended to demonstrate that women were less intelligent as men and had strong maternal instincts.
7. Leta Stetter Hollingworth:
Pioneer female Psychologist who took a stand against Functionalism. Said womens potential would never be known until women had the opportunity to choose the lives they would like – career, maternity, or both.
8. Behaviorism:
The school of psychology that emphasizes the importance of observable behavior as the subject matter of psychology and discounts the utility of unobservable mental events.
9. Women’s Influence in Psychology:
They expanded the earlier area of gender-related behaviors and individual differences to a new psychology of women and gender.
10. Feminist’s movements:
• Liberal feminism:
• Radical feminism:
• Cultural feminism:
• Division 35:
• Liberal feminism:
Holds to the goal to end discrimination that is based on sex. Also to extend to women the rights that men have held.
• Radical feminism:
Ending discrimination is not enough, the entire structure of society need to be changed through laws and
• Cultural feminism:
Advocate social change with the ideal that acceptance and appreciation of traditionally feminine values and the unique feminine view. Celebrate our values as women (nurture and care) see them as strengths rather than weaknesses.
• Division 35:
American Psychological Association. An organization for membership if you want to encourage women in the field of psychology.
11. National Council of Women Psychologists:
Founded in 1941 to further the work of female psychologist in the war effort. Repeatedly rejected by APA.
12. Division 35 of APA:
Society of the Psychology of Women. Promoted women to study in psychology and advancement of research on women and issues related to gender.
13. Men’s Movement:
Men felt fit they didn’t fit into what society said their roles should be. Felt men were necessary for the reform of gender roles. Thought there needed to be a profound institutional change as well as everyday life and personal conduct.
14. Division 51 of APA:
Goals= 1. Promoting study of how gender rules shape and constrict men’s lives. 2. Helping men to experience their full human potential. 3. Eroding the definition of masculinity that has inhibited men’s development and has contributed to the oppression of others.
15. Straight Edge (sXe)
Contend that modern society has left men with no easy way to form a masculine identity. (The culture provides inappropriate models and fathers are often absent providing no model at all.)

The "sXe" men are committed to creating an alternative masculinity that is more compassionate and accepting.
16. Promise Keepers:
Men with a shared goal of godly manhood.
17. Sex differences:
The term used by some researchers (and considered to be inclusive by others) to describe the differences between male and female research participants.
18. Gender:
The term used by some researches to describe the traits and behaviors that are regarded by the culture as appropriate to men and women. It is a social label and not a description of biology.
19. Gender Differences:
Phrase intended to emphasize the social nature of differences between women and men. Use of this puts the focus on differences rather than the many similarities and may perpetuate the perception and exaggeration of those differences.pg.15-16
20. Considering Diversity:
Even in trying to be fair and inclusive, many biases remain in research. this perpetuates disparity in research, treatment, and the value of many groups.

2 Examples:
In making gender comparisons, there is a tendency to use men as the standard.

In research with women, White, usually middle-class, college-educated women are often used as the standard for which other ethnic groups are compared.
Chapter Two:
Chapter Two:
21. Lawerence Summers:
Harvard Pres Lawerence Summers said “intrinsic aptitude is why men dominate the fields of science and engineering.
22. How Science developed:
On the notion that empirical observation allows researchers to discover the lawful principles by which the world works.
23. Empirical observation:
Collecting information through direct observation through ones senses.
24. Objectivity:
The notion that observation is free of bias by the observer
25. Quantitative research:
Research that uses numerical data and statistical analysis.
26. Data:
Representations, usually in numerical form, of some facet of the phenomenon that the researcher observes.
27. Variable:
A factor of interest to researchers; something that can have more than one value, as opposed to a constant, which has only one constant value.
28. Descriptive research methods:
Help investigators answer “what” questions. What exists, what details are there, and what is the extent of relationships among various things. a group of research methods, including naturalistic observation, surveys, and correlational studies, that yield descriptions of the observed phenomena.
29. Operational definition:
A definition of a variable in terms of operations used to obtain information on that variable, rather than in terms of concepts underlying that variable.
30. Experiential design:
Holds that manipulating an ID should make a change in the DV if the two are causally related.
31. Experimental method:
When the experimenter holds other factors constant, the only source of change in the DV should be the manipulated change in the IV. pg 24
32. Experiment:
A type of study in which a researcher manipulates an independent variable and observes the change in a dependent variable; only through experiments can researchers learn about cause and effect relationships.
33. Independent variable:
The factor in an experiment that the experimenter manipulates to create a difference that did not previously exist in the participants.
34. Dependent variable:
The factor in an experiment that the experimenter measures to determine whether the manipulation of the independent variable has a effect.
35. Ex post facto study:
A type of non-experimental research design that involves the comparison of subjects, who are placed in contrast groups, on the basis of some preexisting characteristic of the subjects.
36. Survey:
A descriptive research method involving the measurement of attitudes through the administration and interpretation of questionnaires.
37. Correlational study:
A descriptive research method that requires researchers to measure two factors known to occur within a group of people to determine the degree of relationship between the two factors.
38. Qualitative research:
Research that focuses on understanding complexity and context rather than distilling situations to sets of numbers.
39. Case study:
A qualitative method that focuses on gathering extensive information about a single person or a small group
40. Ethnography:
A type of qualitative research in which the researcher becomes immersed in a situation in order to make observations and interpretations of that situation.
41. Focus groups:
A qualitative research method consisting of a discussion involving a group of people centered around a specific topic.
42. Statistically significant result:
A result obtained by analysis with statistical tests and found unlikely to have been obtained on the basis of chance alone.
43. Feminist empiricists: pg 46.
Researchers who advise taking care to avoid sexist bias in research.
Chapter 3:
Capter 3:
44. Gender stereotype:
The beliefs about the characteristics associated with, and the activities appropriate to, men or women.
45. Industrial Revolution:
Emphasized needs for things traditionally masculinity . pg 49.
46. Cult of True Womanhood =
Purity, Piety, Submission, & domesticity. Women are judged by everyone through these 4 things and without these, woman’s life has no real meaning. Pg 49.
47. Male gender role:
1.No sissy stuff,
2.the big wheel(men need success & status),
3. the sturdy oak( men should have toughness, confidence, & self-reliance),
4. Give ‘em hell(men should have an aura of aggression, daring, & violence). Pg 49.
48. Hegemonic masculinity:
Attempts to subordinate femininity as well as other less accepted versions of masculinity, such as male homosexuality.
49. Illusory correlation:
The incorrect belief that two events vary together, or the perception that the relationship is strong when little or no actual relationship exists. Pg 53.
50. Androgyny:
A blending of masculinity and femininity, in which the desirable characteristics associated with both men and women are combined within individuals. Pg 54
51. Validation:
The process of demonstrating that a psychological test measures what it claims to measure; the procedure that demonstrates the accuracy of a test. Pg 55.
52. Bem Sex Role Inventory:
Sandra Bem (1974) proposed that some people are androgynous, 2 scales are needed so you can see how much masculine and how much femine versus the 1 scale. Pg 55.
53. Prejudice:
Negative evaluation of an entire group. Pg 58.
54. Discrimination:
Behavior that holds people or groups apart from others and results in different treatments for those ppl. Pg59.
55. Implicit attitudes
Attitudes that people hold on an unconscious level, which may differ from their explicit, conscious attitudes. Pg 65.
56. Explicit attitudes:
Consciously aware of the opinions they furnish. Pg 64.
57. Stereotype threat:
A phenomenon that occurs in situations in which the presence of negative stereotypes affects the performance of those to whom the stereotype applies.
58. Hostile sexism:
Negative attitudes toward women. Pg 67.
59. Benevolent sexism:
Positive attitudes that nonetheless serve to belittle women and keep them subservient. Pg 67.
Chapter 4:
Chapter 4:
60. Endocrine glands:
Glands that secrete hormones into the circulatory system.
61. Steroid hormones:
Hormones that relate to reproduction.
62. Gonads:
The reproductive organs ovaries and testes.
63. Gonadal hormones:
Androgens & Estrogens.
65. Gonadotropins:
Hormones that circulate through the bloodstream & stimulate the ovaries & testes to release their hormones.
66. Androgens:
A class of hormones that includes testosterone and other steroid hormones. Men typically produce a greater proportion of androgens that estrogens.
67. Estrogens:
A class of hormones that includes estradiol and other steroid hormones. Women typically produce a greater proportion of estrogens than androgens.
68. Sexual dimorphism:
The result of development that begins with conception and ends at puberty. It is the product of 5 stages of dev: genetic, gonadal, hormonal, internal genitalia, external genitalia.
69. Mullerian System pg 78-79.
Female Reproductive System
________________________
________________________
69.5. Wollfian System: pg 78-79.
Male Reproductive System
________________________
________________________
70. Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus:
Small section in the hypothalamus where evidence for sexual dimorphism is the strongest. Larger in males. Very sensitive to testosterone & estrogen. But the gender difference is not present at birth. pg 81-82.
71. Spinal nucleus of the Bulbocavernosus:
It is 25% larger in men than in women. These neurons aid in the ejaculation of sperm in men & constrict the opening of the vagina in women.
72. Secondary sex characteristics:
Differences between our bodies (non-reproductive diferences = Example: Men are on average taller, have longer and thicker body and facial hair, etc.) Pg 84.
64. Pituitary Gland:
__________________
__________________
73. Turner syndrome:
XO
74. Chromosomal patterns:
______________
______________
75. Klinefelter syndrome:
XXY Most common sex chromosome abnormality. 1 in every 1,000 male births.
76. Intersexuality:
A more modern term for hermaphroditism (Hermaphroditism: a disorder in which individuals have characteristics of both sexes.)
77. PMDD:
____________________
____________________
____________________
78. PMS
____________________
____________________
____________________
79. Testosterone and aggression:
____________________
____________________
80. Berdaches and Hijras
(Native word for ppl who adopt gender-related behaviors of the other gender)

(India – men who wish to become women)
Chapter 5:
Chapter 5:
81. Conscious:
_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
82. Unconscious:
Region of the mind that functions beyond conscious personal awareness. Pg 108.
83. Subconscious:
__________________
__________________
__________________
84. Freud’s Developmental stages:
Oral, anal, phallic (age 3-, latent, genital
85. Oedipal complex:
In Freudian theory, the situation that exists during the phallic stage in which the child feels unconscious hostility toward the same-sex parent and unconscious sexual feelings for the opposite-sex parent. Freud used the story of Oedipus as an analogy for the family dynamics that occur during the phallic stage of personality development.
86. Penis envy:
Female version of the castration complex and that girls experience feelings of inferiority concerning their genitals.
87. Freud’s attitude towards Women:
Pg. 110 & 111.
88. Horney’s Theory of Development:
Gender is social instead of biological, womb envy causes men to overcompensate and treat women as inferior. Pg. 113.
89. Chodorow’s Theory:
Emphasizes mothering. Boys have conflict trying to separate from mothers. Pg. 115.
90. Kaschak’s Antigone complex:
If resolved, women reject subservient role, are assertive and independent, define own sexuality, accept and express own needs, form friendships with other women. Pg. 116.
91. Gender Roles:
A set of socially significant activities associated with being male or female. Pg. 118.
92. Social Learning Theory:
Gender develops in the same way as other learned behaviors. We learn a gender role (socially significant activities that men & women engage in with different frequencies). Emphasizes influence of social environment. Pg. 118.
93. Operant conditioning:
A form of learning based on applying reinforcement & punishment. 118
94. Observational learning:
________________
________________
________________
95. Cognitive Development:
________________
________________
________________
96. Gender constancy:
________________
________________
________________
97. Gender Schema:
________________
________________
________________
98. Gender Script Theory:
________________
________________
________________
99. Developing gender identity:
________________
________________
________________
100. Gender-related knowledge:
________________
________________
________________
101. Gender-typical activities:
______
_____
102. Gender Labeling:
The ability to label self and others as male or female.
103. Gender Constancy:
The knowledge that gender is a permanent characteristic and will not change with superficial alterations.
Chapter 6:
Chapter 6:
104. Applying Gender:
____?
105. Egalitarian attitudes:
Black fathers are more egalitarian. Hispanic fathers are less egalitarian. pg 147
106. The case of John/Joan:
Lost his penis at age 8mo. Reassigned to be female. Found out and switched back to male. pg 145
107. Traditional attitudes about gender roles:
_____
____
108. Synthesized realism:
A mixture of actual information with phony details into a realistic portrayal that is really fiction.
109. Gender identity disorder:
A disorder that occurs when a child rejects the gender role that corresponds to biological sex and adopts cross-gender behaviors and possibly a cross-gender identity. 157
Chapter 7:
Chapter 7:
110. Intelligence:
pg 162
111. Cognitive Abilities:
There is no difference btwn males and females pg 162
112. Wechsler’s tests:
Alternative intelligence test that divided abilities into the categories of verbal & performance skills.pg 163.
113. Verbal Performance:
Women tested higher in this part of the Wechsler test. Men tested higher in performance. 163. (More better on pg 164)
114. Mathematical and Quantitative Performance:
pg 165-170
115. Spatial ability:
____
____
116. Spatial perceptions:
Ability to identify & locate the horizontal or vertical plans in the presence of distracting information. Pg 171.
117. Mental Rotation:
A subtype of spatial ability that includes the ability to identify and locate the horizontal or vertical in the presence of distracting information. Pg 171.
118. Spatial Visualization:
A subtype of spatial ability that refers to the ability to process spatial information so as to understand the relationship between objects in space, such as the ability to see a figure embedded in other figures, find hidden figures in a drawing or picture or imagine the shape produced when a folded piece of paper is cut and then unfolded. Pg 171.
119. Spatiotemporal ability:
A subtype of spatial ability that involves judgments about moving objects in space, such as making a judgment about when a moving object will arrive at a target. Pg 171.
120. Sources of the Difference:
pg 178.
121. Implications of Gender related differences:
pg 182.
122. Stereotype threat:
Situations in which the presence of negative stereotypes affects the performance of those to whom the stereotype applies. Pg 181.
Chapter 8:
Chapter 8:
123. Physiological aspects of Emotion:
Men use this more-so pg 189-190.
124. Cognitive Aspects of Emotion:
Women use this more-so pg 189-190.
125. Behavioral Aspects of Emotion:
The experience of emotion requires no behavioral manifestation. Pg 190.
126. Display Rules:
The learned social rules that govern who may display which emotions to whom, and in what situation each emotion may be displayed. Pg 190