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29 Cards in this Set

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Theory
-integrated set of ideas that help to describe, explain, and predict behavior
-provides some organizing framework for observations of behavior
-verified through research can provide a sound basis for predicting outcomes and applying research findings to practice
Basic Interactive Forced underlying Development
-biological
-psychological
-socio-cultural
-life-cycle forces (affects people at different points in their life)
Influences
-normative, age-graded ... biological changes linked to the passage of time and shared by most adults
-shared/cultural... social clock-typical timing of certain experiences...ageism-negative beliefs about people cause of age
-history... influences that occur at a specific point in time and may affect everyone in the society or culture..different impact on people as a function of age
Cohort
Group of people born at approx. the same time who share similar patterns of historical experiences throughout life. Alike in some ways that set them apart.
Non-normative
Factors that are not history related or age related... unique to the individual
-on-time vs. off-time
Themes/Issues
-nature vs. nurture
-continuous vs. discontinuos
-1 course of development or many?
Nature vs. Nurture
Used to rely on from nature... childhood=growth & aging=decline
-children w/disablities were institutionalized, dementia as aging, institutional care was sterile, and of older adults
Nurture--- environment is critical to shape a future.
Rene Spitz's work & Hary Harlow
Rene Spitz's
Hospitalization in 1940's. Compared diseased patterns of children of imprisoned mothers allowed to be with their mothers to those who were kept separate orphanage in clean.... more alive w/mothers
Harry Harlow
Baby monkeys & preference for cloth vs. wire mothers.
Feed at wire and congregate to cloth.
Continuous Change
-quantitative change, gradual occurs in small increments
Discontinuous Change
-qualitative change, sets of behaviors viewed as stages
-stage-based theories
-changes in thinking and behaving that characterize specific developmental periods
-staircase
Psychodynamic
Behavior driven by internal motives and drives. Sequence of universal stages, individual differences in rate, nature-nurture interaction.
-Freud, Erikson
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital... personality established at 12
Erik Erikson
-Each stage focuses on a crisis/challenge in the life cycle.. turning point better/worse.
-Stages are invariant and genetically determined, and development is influenced by culture and social environment
Stages of Erikson's Theory
-intimacy vs. isolation...young adulthood 19 to 25, young adults risk the immersion of self in a sense of we to intimate relationships= love
-generativity vs. stagnation middle age 25 to 65 a way to satisfy the need to be generative= care
-integrity vs. despair old age 65+ if previous successful, acceptance of oneself= wisdom
Learning Theory
Emphasizes the role of experience and how learning influences behavior through rewards and punishment and/or observation
John Watson
40's and 50's learn through experience, can be molded and shaped
Skinner
40's & 50's operant conditioning
-consequences determine if it will be repeated
-reinforcement of behavior increases likelihood of repeated
-punishment decreases likelihood
Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura.. people learn through modeling and observing.
-experience provides a sense of self-efficacy.. beliefs about one's own abilities and talents to manipulate one's environment
Cognitive Development
how people think and how thinking changes overtime
Ecological Theory
person-environment transactions... Bill Thomas's Eden Alternative Nursing Homes
Competence-Environmental Press
Lawton.. people adapt to their environments depending upon their level of competence, and the demands put on them by the environment.
-When demand (press) exceeds level at which a person can adapt, person feels challenged and performs at maximum potential.
-Press to high, individual experience physical, social, or psychological overload or stress.
-Press far below the potential for adaptation, sensory deprivation, boredom, helplessness, dependence on others may result.
Disengagement Theory
Societies need organized way for older generations to transfer power to younger generations. Withdrawal from social roles in response to decrease capabilities and decreased interest.
-Pursues solitary activities in preparation for death... mandatory retirement, aging viewed in the perspective of times, theory based observations.
Activity Theory
-individuals are active agents
-aging is most successful when one participates in activities and maintains involvement
-narrow due to heterogeneity among older people and differing life style desires
Continuity Theory
people maintain patterns of behavior
-substitute similar roles for lost ones
-dynamic interaction between the person and her/his
environment
-continue prior ways to adapt to changes
-act a certain way when you were young, as when you are older
Development
life-long process with diverse change patterns from birth to death
-decline like processing info.
-stability in vocab.
-growth in wisdom
-change
Plasticity
individuals adapt to challenges of circumstances that arise withing them or withing their environments... skills can be learned of improved with practice
Contextualism
development unfolds withing a historical and cultural contexts. One's environment provides different limitations and opportunities.
differences
inter-individual
-intra-individual differences.. not all systems develop at the same rate; some functions may show positive change, others negative change and others no change
Older Ages of Adulthood
-range of biological, psychological and social changes 65+
young old- 65-74
old-old - 75-84
oldest-old 85+