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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ENCODING
-information is put into memoery
-memory codes: acoustic, visual, semantic
STORAGE
-information is maintained over time
RETRIEVAL
-information is brought to consciousness
-recall
-recognition
EPISODIC
-first dance
-last summer
-prom
-"I remember when..."
SEMANTIC
-almost always factual
-what a dance is?
-"I know that.."
PROCEDURAL MEMORY
-almost always a motor behavior
-usually don't think about it
-"look ma, no hands"
-how to dance
EXPLICIT MEMORY
-intentionally trying to remember something
-answering questions on tests
IMPLICIT MEMORY
-unintentional influence on prior experiences
-priming
-most procedural memories
-ex. you feel uncomfortable around dogs because of a forgotten childhood incident
LEVELS OF PROCESSING
*Memory:
-how deep was the memory encoded?
*Maintenance:
-repetition
ELABORATIVE PROCESSING:
-relate experience to old memory
TRANSFER APPROPRIATE
Memory:
-how well does encoding match retrieval processes?
-same in same out
CONTEXT DEPENDENCE
-you should study in the room you will be tested
STATE DEPENDENCE
-If you're high when you study you should be high when you take the test
PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING (PDP)
-knowledge is based on a network of associations
SPREADING ACTIVATION:
-multiple related memories are all activated
CONSTRUCTIVE MEMORY:
-can lead to incorrect memories
-ex. Mr. Brown example and playing telephone
INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL
Memory:
-depends on the interaction between stages of mental processing
SENSORY MEMORY:
-bridges gaps between moments
-role of sensory registers
-provides coherence and continuity to world
SHORT TERM MEMORY
-couple of seconds
-what you're currently thinking about right now
WORKING MEMORY
-limited buffer (18 seconds)
-2 components (maintenance and manipulation)
MAINTENANCE:
-holding them in your brain
MANIPULATION:
-if we are changing or manipulating our memories
LONG-TERM MEMORY
-deep levels of conscious
-involves some degree of semantic coding
-storage capacity is very alrge if not unlimited
-confidence of memory is NOT related to accuracy
-retrieval cues help access long term memory
PRIMACY EFFECT
-recall first items
RECENCY EFFECT
-recall lost items
MOOD CONGRUENCY EFFECTS
-if you're in the same mood as when you studied you will remember it more
PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING
-network of associations
SPREADING ACTIVATION:
-tip of the tongue phenomenon/feeling of knowing
WHY DO WE FORGET?
DECAY:
-the gradual disappearance of the information from memory
PROACTTIVE INTERFERENCE
-old impairs new
RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE
-new impairs old
ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA
-can't make new memories
RETROGRADE AMNESIA
-people with amnesia
-can form new memories after an accident
COGNITION
-information processing system
-generic term for higher mental processes
-thinking, memory, problem solving
FACTORS AFFECTING REACTION TIME
-complexity of decision
-expectancy
-stimulus-response compatibility
-speed-accuracy tradeoff
FORMAL CONCEPT
-fixed feature
-ex. math concept, physical, has set characterisitcs that are finite
NATURAL CONCEPT
-not a fixed set
-bird, aircraft, dog, and car
PROTOTYPE
-exemplary image of a natural concept
-robin, airplane, German Shepard, mustang
-ideal representation of that category
PROPOSITIONS
-links two concepts together
SCHEMA
-sets of related propositions
COGNITIVE MAPS
-mental representation of familiar parts of the world
MENTAL MODEL
-predict motion without seeing it
REASONING
-the process through which people generate and evaluate
FORMAL REASONING
ALGORITHMS:
-proces that will always eventually give you an answer
-rules of logic guide the way you think
Common Pitfalls:
-belief bias
COMFIRMATION BIAS
-only look for positive signs to confirm an idea you already have
INFORMAL REASONING
-trying to guess something
- you have partial information and trying to come to conclusions
-role of heuristics (rule of thumb)
ANCHORING HEURISTIC
-Really hard to change thier estimation of something
-you are anchored in what you believe in
STRATEGIES FOR PROBLEM SOLVING (INCUBATION)
-put a proble aside for a while and return to it later
STRATEGIES FOR PROBLEM SOLVING (MEANS-END ANALYSIS)
-where you are in contrast to your goal
DECOMPOSITION
-break a problem into smaller subproblems and subproblem one by one to solve the larger problem
MENTAL SETS
-you stick w/ old strategy even though a new strategy might work better
IGNORING NEGATIVE EVIDENCE
-the absence of symptoms can provide important evidence for or against a hypothesis
-we fail to notice what ahould be there and is not