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46 Cards in this Set

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Adoption Study
A procedure used to evaluate the effects of heredity versus environment in determining behavior, specifically criminal behavior.
Anomie
A sense of alienation or meaninglessness.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder characterized by repeated rule breaking, chronic manipulativeness, impulsivive and irresponsible behavior, calleous attitudes towards others, and a lack of guilt or remorse for wrongdoing.
Atavism
The view that crime is due to a genetic throwback to a more primitive ang aggressive form of human being.
Biological Theories of Crime
An explanation for the causes of criminal behavior that uses heredity and consitutional characteristics of the lawbreaker.
Classical Conditioning
A procedure in which one learns to associate a new response witha stimulus.
Classical School of Criminology
The point of view that evolved in the 1700's and 1800's, emphasizing the role of free will and cost-benefit analysis in determining criminal behavior.
Cocordance Rate
The extent of similarity in a behavior or characteristic between two twins.
Conditioned Stimulus
An act that, through association, comes to elicit a learned response.
Containment Theory
The proposition that societal pressure controls the rate of crime.
Control Theory
The proposition that people will act in antisocial way unless they are prevented from doing so.
Criminology
The study of crime and criminal behavior.
Differential Association Reinforcement Theory
A learning-theory approach that asserts that criminal behavior is the result of socialization into a system of values that is conducive to violation of the law.
Dizygotic Twins
Fraternal twins; that is, those who share about half the same genes.
Ecological Theorists
A group of criminologist who believed that crime was caused primarily by a combination of social, environmental, and cultural factors.
Ectomorph
In Sheldon's typology, a tall, thin, physique.
Endomorph
In Sheldon's typology, a soft rounded physique.
Executive Function
The cognitive ability to plan and regulate behavior carefully.
Extroversion
The personality cluster characterized by outgoing orientation, enthusiasm, and optimism.
Focal Concerns Theory
A theory that relates the criminal activities of lower-class gangs to their need to achieve those end that are most culturally valued through the simplest possible means.
Genealogy
The tracing of the ancestry of an individual; an early method of studying genetic contributions in criminality.
Learning Theory
A form of criminological theory that emphasizes how specific criminal behaviors are learned directly from reinforcement and modeling influences.
Mesomorph
In Sheldon's typology, a muscular physique.
Monozygotic Twins
Commonly called identical twins.
Neuroticism
A major dimension of personality involving the tendency to experience negative emotions such as anxiety, anger, and depression, often accompanied by distressed thinking and behavior.
Operant Learning
A form of learning in which the consequences of a behavior influence the likelihood of it being performed in teh future.
Positive School of Criminology
A point of view that emphasized that criminal behavior by a person was determined, rather than a product of free will.
Primary Deviance
Behavior that violates a law or nrom for socially acceptable conduct.
Psychological Theories Of Crime
The approach that explaining criminal behavior that ues factors within the person such as motivation, ability level, and aspirations.
Psychopathy
A long-term pattern of unsocialized or criminal behavior by a person who feels no guilt about such conduct.
Psychoticism
A majory element in Eysenck's theory of personality, characterized by insensitivity, trouble-making, and lack of empathy.
Racial Profiling
The police practice of using race as a factor in determining actions such as traffic stops, arrests, and questioning of suspects.
Rational Choice Theory
A proposition that, if the rationale for committing a crime exceeds that for not committing it, the liklihood of the crime being committed increases.
Rational Crime Theory
The theory that some illegal behavior "makes sense" because of the reward and unlikihood of detection.
Reaction Formation
The acceptance of whatever it is opposit to the norm.
Reality Principle
The psychoanalysis, the task of the ego to reach rational compromises between teh instincts of the id and the moral demands of the superego.
Secondary Deviance
Creating or increasing the deviant indenity of a person through the use of offical label or from legal sanctions.
Social-Process Theories
A broach category of criminalogical theory that emphasizes how different types of learning involved in social interactions lead to crime.
Social-Psychological Theory Of Crime
The theory that propoes teh criminal behavior is learned through social interation.
Sociological Theories of Crime
An examination of the institutions and norm of society as they determine adherence to the law and lawbreaking.
Somatotypes
Different types of huma n physiques that Sheldon originally hypothesized were linked to distinct ypes of personality.
Stimulation-Seeking Theory
A theory that psychopathic beavior is due to individuals attempts to raise their sensory and arousal experiences to an optimal level through repeated thrill-seeking and risk-taking.
Structural Explanations
A type of sociological theory of crime that emphasizes similar interests and motivations, but differences in opportunities.
Subcultural Explanations
A type of sociological theory of crime that emphasizes class differences in values.
Unconditioned Stimulus
A original stimulus, not associated with a new or conditioned response.
Vicarious Learning
Learning by observing the actions of another person and their outcomes.