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21 Cards in this Set

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operant conditioning
a type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows it
Edward Thorndike
Author of law of effect the priciple that forms the basis of operant conditioning
B. F. Skinner
devolpoed the fundamental priciples and techniques of operant conditioning and devised ways to apply them in the real world
reinforcement
any conseqence that INCREASES the likelihood of a behavior
punishment
any consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of a behavior
positive reinforcement
in operant conditioning anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with a desirable event or state
negative reinforcement
in operant conditioning anything that increases the likelihood of a behavior by following it with the removal of an undesirable event of state
primary reinforecement
something that is naturally reinforcing such as food ,warmth or water
secondary reinforcement
something that you have learned to value such as money
shaping
reinforcement of behaviors that are more and more similar to the one you want to occur
discrimination
ability to distinguish between 2 similar signals or stimuli
extinction
the loss of behavior when no consequence follows it
continuous reinforcement
a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follow every correct response
partial reinforcement schedule
a schedule of reinforcement in which a reward follows only some correct responses
fixed -interval schedule
a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards only the 1st correct response after some defined period of time
variable-interval schedule
a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards the 1st correct response after an unpredictable amount of time
fixed-ratio schedule
a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards a response only after some defined number of correct responses
variable-ratio schedule
a partial reinforcement schedule that rewards an unpredictable number of correct responses
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until the learner has an incentive to demonstrate it
cognitive map
a mental representation of a place
overjustification
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The reward for doing what one already likes to do .The reward may lessen and replace the person's orginal ,natural motivation,so that the behavior stops of the reward is eliminated