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130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The psychoogical and bodily response to a stimulus that alters your equilibrium
The stimulus that throws the body's equilibrium out of balance.
The body's response to the stressor
Stress Response
A short term stressor
ACute Stressor
A long term stressor
Chronic Stressor
Cognitive Stress occurs in how many phases?
The stimulus is assessed for the likelihood of danger (Am I in danger?)
Primary Appraisal
Determining what resources are available to deal with the stressor (What can I do about it?
Secondary Appraisal
This occurs after Secondary Appraisal and involves taking some course of action regarding the stressor.
The emotional predicamenet people experience when they make difficult choices.
Internal Conflict
Internal Conflict: this results when competing alternatives are equally positive. For example, you can only accept one invitation but you have received two from persons you like.
Approach-Approach Conflict
Internal Conflict: This results when competing alternatives are equally unpleasant. For example, you don't want to take a test for which you are unprepared, but you don't want to just cut the class.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Internal Conflict: Occurs when a course of action has both positive and negative aspects. For example, you want to have several drinks at a party, but you don't want to have to drive home. Note that any of our habits that are health rissks can potentially involved this type of conflict such as smoking, eating tasty but unhealthy foods, drinking, etc.
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
The ______________ system functions to defend the body against infection.
What are the two classes of white cells?
B Cells and T Cells
The type of white cells that mature in the bone marrow.
B Cells
The type of white cells that mature in the Thymus
T Cells
A type of T cell that detects and destroys damaged or altered cells such as precancerous cells before they become a tumor.
Natural Killer Cells (NK Cells)
The theory that states dreams are the royal road to unconscious. Dreams allow us to fulfill unconscious desires or wishes. Dreams have a manifest content (the obvious content) and a latent content (the symbolic content)
Freudian Theory
A study that took 350 Stroke patients, many had chagnes in the nature of their dreams following their strokes. Patients who damage which disconnected parts of the frontal cortext from the brainstem and had no dreams.
The Solms (1997) study at the London Hospital Medical College
Uncontrollably falling off to sleep
Know this about Insomnia:
a. Anxiety and depression can both cause chronic insomnia
b. Half of the adults in the US experience occasional insomnia
c. Barbiturates or other sleep suppressants are addictive. Continued use results in increased tolerance and great sleeping difficulty. Their use suppresses REM sleep.
no answer, just be familiar with those facts.
A disorder characterized by the cessation of breathing during sleep
Sleep Apnea
Purposefully trying not to think about something emotionally arousing or distressing.
Thought Suppression
Some people are more likely to make a negative appraisal of an abiguous or neutral stimulus sand misread the intention of others, this bias could lead to aggressive behavior.
Hostile Attribution Bias
_____________ Dependence, which is a physiological addiction, is a dependence that involves two primary features.
As one continues to drink fairly heavily over a period of days, weeks, or months, it will require increasing amounts of alcohol to achieve the same phsyical and psychological state
Tolerance, one of the two features of Alcohol Dependence
This occurs when a person who is physiologically dependent on alcohol (or other drugs) stops the drug abruptly. This may include heightened anxiety, profuse sweating, ahllucinatory experiences, and various sensory sensations such as crawling of the skin. This can drastically affect electrolytests, and can lead to cardiac problems. Death may be one consequence of untreated ___________.
Withdrawal, one of the two features of Alcohol Dependence
Enhanced sense of physical and mental capacity/diminshed appetite. Chronic use often results in paranoia, teeth grinding, and visual disturbances such as seeing snow, or feeling insects crawling on skin. Use is associated with pleasurable, euphoric feeling.
Cocaine in crystalline form usually smoked in a pipe. This drug is faster acting and has more intense effects that Cocaine in powder form. Effects last only a few minutes, leading the user to take greater amts. than users of powdered cocaine. This drug has a very high potential for abuse and dependence.
Synethetic stimulants such as Benzedrine and Dexedrine- usually taken in pill form or injected.
User can develop ______________ psychois- similar to paranoid schizophrenia. Symptoms are delusions, hallucinations, and pronounced paranoia.
Know these three things about ABNORMALITY:
1. Statistical Definition: Abnormality as deviance from a statistical norm.
2. Abnormality as a departure from 'Cultural Norms'
3. Abnormality as a 'Troublesome Behavior'
A predisposition to state or condition
Specific factors which combine with the predisposition, trigger the disorder
Stree of the Diathesis-Stress Model
The model that shows because of certain biological factors, some people may be more susceptible to developing a particular disorder, but without certain environmental stressors, the disorder is not triggered.
Diathesis-Stress Model
The _______ is referred to as a multi-axial system (five axes)
Of the DSM IV: the axis for clinical disorders.
Axis I
Of the DSM IV: the axis for personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis II
Of the DSM IV: the axis for any general medical condition that might be relevant to a diagnosis.
Axis III
In the DSM IV: the axis that identifies pyschosocial or environmental problems
Axis IV
In the DSM IV: the axis that records the patient's hightest level of funtioning within the past year
Axis V
AT least two weeks of depressed mood along with sleep or eating disturbances, loss of interest in almost all activities, loss of energy and feelings of hopelessness.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
One or more manic episodes, often followed by depression
Bipolar Disorder
A state involving intense fear, usually triggered by an external stimulus
Anxiety Disorder
Excessive anxiety that it not consistently related to any particular external event.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
What are the four major types of Anxiety Disorders?
Panic Disorder, Phobias, OCD, and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Panic attacks involving chest pains, breathing problems, nausea, sweating and dizziness - often leads to a visit to the ER because the person believes he or she is having a heart attack.
Panic Disorder
Know this about Phobias
1. Social Phobias: also called Social Anxiety Disorder
2. Specific Phobias
NO ANSWER, but smile!!
Recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that feel intrusive and inappropriate
Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that some people feel compelled to perform in response to an obsession
Three conditions of this disorder must be met...
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
1. A person witnesses an event that involved actual or threatened serious injury or death.
2. The traumatized person responds with fear and helplessness
3. The traumatized individual experiences three sets of symptoms: persisting re-experiencing of the traumatic evenet, a persistent avoidance of anything to do with the traumatic event and heightened arousal often assoicated with a startle response.
The tree conditions in order to have Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
A pyschotic disoder that profoundly alters affect, behavior and cognition particularly the patter or form of thought.
Delusision, Hallucinations, disordered behavior, disorganized speech
The positive symptoms of Zchizophrenia
Flat affect, slow empty replies to questions.
The Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
The inability to initiate goal directed behavior
Persons who are biologically vulnerable and stress triggers the manifestation of the symptoms
Diathesis-Stress Model
A potentially fatal disorder bin whcih there is refusal to maintain even a low normal weight. Of those hospitalized for the disorder, approximately 10% will die, usually from CVD's caused by severe malnutrition.
Anorexia Nervosa
Recurrent episodes of binge eating usually followed by efforts to rid the body of the food by vomiting or laxatives.
Bulimia Nervosa
A set of relatively stable personality traits that are inflexible and maladaptive, causing distress or diffficulty in daily functioning
Personality Disorder
A set of relatively stable personality traits that are inflexible and maladaptive, causing distress or difficulty in daily functioning.
Personality Disorder
In this type of therapy, the focus is on changing observable, measurable behavior.
Behavior Therapy
Techniques based on Classical Conditioning: A procedure that teaches people to relax in the presense of a feared situation
Systematic Desentization
Techniques based on Classical Conditioning: A relaxation technique whereby the muscles are sequentially relaxed from one end of the body to the other.
Progressive Muscle Relaxation
Techniques based on Classical Conditioning: Patients are asked to expose themselves to the feared stimulus in a planned and gradual way.
Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning: changing the behavior by setting the appropriate response contingences or behaviors that will earn reinforcement.
Behavior Modification
Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning: Daily logs used for a variety of problems
Self-Monitoring Techniques
Techniques Based on Operant Conditioning: Patients observe other people interacting with the feared stimulus
Techniques BAsed on Observational Learning
The type of therapy where the focus is on the client's thoughts rather than feelings or behaviors and the role of attempts to think rationally in the control of distressing feelings and behaviors.
Cognitive Therapy
Attempts to help clients distinguish between a thought that is a "must" and one that is a "prefer." Must thoughts are often irrational. For example, believing that people "must" like you is unrealistic or irrational whereas you would "prefer" that they like you, is closer to rational thinking
Albert Ellis (Rational Emotive Therapy)
the first medication of this type played a mjaor role in virtuall yending prefrontal lobotomies and transorbital leucotomies. Examples are
Thorazine and Haldol, both of which reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and paranoid though, but can produce serious permanent side effects.
Anitpyschotic Medication:
A serious side effect of the antipsychoitc medications.
Tardive Dyskinesia
Schizophrenia and parkinson's disease are both associated with low levels of what?
The effects of antipsychotic medications reduces ____________ activity
Exampe: Tranylcypromine (Parnate). 1st anti-depressant med to be discovered.People on this type of medication can not eat foods that contain tyramine, like wine and cheese, because it could lead to fatal hypertension.
Monoaminine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors)
What are some examples of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors?
Prozac, Zoloft and Paxil

*note that side effects are: nervousness, fatigue, GI complaints, dizziness, headaches, and insomnia
A treatment developed in the 1930s for Schizophrenia. This is also used for patients with depression (when other meds don't work)
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Working with the family as a whole. Most often from the theoretical framework of Systems Therapy which treats the family as a whole in the patient, but views the client as the identified patient
Family Therapy
Know that: Generally Cognitive and Interpersonal therapies are effeective in treating depression; response prevention is effective with OCD, exposure works well with specific phobias.
Just facts...
Insight-Oriented Therapies, _____________ (name) ________ engaged in extensive research and sought to build a research based system that emphasized warmth, genuiness, and empathy as three primary characteristics of an effective therapist.
Carl Rogers
Which medications/therapy work best for what: Depression...
Cognitive Behavioral approaches
Which medications/therapy work best for what: Anxiety...
Exposure for people with phobias, Response prevention for those with OCD
Which works best for Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorders??
Meication is better than psychotherapy, therapy may help while the patient is on medication
Know that cultural factors could affect the relationship between a therapist and client
An overall evaluation about some aspect of the world - people, issues, or objects. There are three components of this...
what are the three components of attitude?
Affective, Behavioral, Cognitive
Your feelings about an object or an issue
Affective (attitude)
Your predisposition to act in a particular way, not how you normally act, but how you feel inclined to act.
Behavioral (attitude)
What you velieve or know about the object or the issue
Cognitive (attitude)
An uncomfortable state that arises when there is a discrepancy between attitude and behavior or between two attitudes
Cognitive Dissonance
Efforts to change attitudes
Proposes that there are two avenues of change
Elaboration Likelihood Model of attitude change
A belied or set of beliefs about people in a particular social category, the category can be dinfed by race, sex, social class, religion or numerous other possible characterisitics.
An "attitude" , generally negative, towards members of a group, it includes beliefs and expecations about the group but also an emotional component
Suffering the effects of prejudiced behavior
What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination
Prejudice is the action and discrimination is the effects of prejudice's behavior.
The belief that prejudice arises as groups compete for resources such as good housing, jobs, and schools.
Realistic Conflict Theory
Cognitive shortcuts for determineing attributions, usually outside our awareness.
Attribution Biases
The strong tendency to interpret other people's behavniors as caused by internal causes rather than external ones.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The inclination to attribute your own failures to external causes but the failure of others to internal causes
Slef-Serving Bias
A tendency to assume that cultures, countries, or people "get what they deserve"
Blief in a Just World
The intense, often sudden feelin of being "in love" including sexual attraction. A desire for mutual love and phsyical closeness, arousal, and a fear that the relationship will end.
Passionate Love
Characterized by a very close friendship, mutual caring, liking, respect, and attraction
Compassionate Love
Who has the Triangular Model of love that consists of three dimensions?
Robert Sternberg
What are the three dimensions of love?
Passion, Intimacy, and Committment
Passion is...?
Including sexual desire
Emotional Closeness and sharing
The conscious decision to be in the relationship
Sternberg maintains that only a _____________ love involes all three of the three demensions of love components.
Consummate Love
A change in behavior brought about through a direct request rather than by social norms
What are the three techniques of Compliance?
Foot in the door, lowball, and door in the face
This technique works often, first you make an insignificant request. IF there is compliance you follow up with a larger request
Foot in the door technique of compliance
You first get someone to agree, then you increase the cost of agreement
Lowball Technique of Compliance
You begin by making a very large request When it is denied, you make the smaller request which you actually wanted.
Door in the face technique of compliance
The study in which participants were ordered to inflict pain on a confederate
Milgram's Study
When the responsibility is spread out, some members may be liekyl to let other members work harder.
Social Loafing
When performance increases as a result of just being in the presence of other people
Social Facilitation
What does Bystander Intervention all involve:
1. The case of Catherine Genovese, The bystander Effect, Diffusion of Repsonsibility
"Kitty" as she was known by neighbors, was brutally stabbed to death for 35 minutes while viewd by atleast 35 witnesses in Queens, NY. one one helped...
The case of Catherine Genovese
It was hypothesized that if only a few people witnessed the above events, they would have been more liekly to help. But it was found that if there were only two persons listening for pleas for help by a confederate, they were more liekly to help than iif there were tree presons listening to please for help over a speaker.
The Bystander Effect
The more bystanders tehre are the less each feels the repsonsibility to help.
Diffusion of Responsibility
A type of therapy that tires to help clients distinguis between a thought that is a "must" and one that is a prefer" For example, believing that people must like you is unrealistic or irrational where as you would prefer if everyone liked you is more realistic
Albert Ellis (Rational Emotional Therapy)
The theory involves helping the client shift thier thinking away from 'automatic' dysfunction thoughts to more realistic ones, a technique called Cognitive Restructuring
Aaron Beck's Cognitive Theory
Treatment that combines Behavioral techniques to change behavior and Cognitive techniques to change thoughts that affect feelings and behavior.
Cognitive Behavior Therpay (CBT)
A type of therapy that assumes if a person truly understnads the causes of distressing symptoms, the symptoms will diminish
Insight-oriented therapy
An intensive form of therapy directly linked to Freuds theory of personality, the goal is to help clients understand the unconscious motivations that lead them to behave in specific ways
Techniques of psychoanalysis include:
Free association, Dream Analysis, and Extensive Therapy
Based on psychoanalytic theory but involves far briefer contacts in therapy (12-20 visits)
Psychodynamic Therapy
Client-Centered therapy, focuses on people's potential for growth and the imporatnce of empathic therapist.
Humanistic Therapy