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172 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
we are capable of perceiving only _____
partially of what is actually available
most common visual disorders are due to ___ and ___
cornea , lens
light shines through onto the ___
retina
what is a blind spot
its the range in which you cant see past your periphial vision
what are the 3 kinds of cones
blue green and red. this is the beginning of color perception
the cones are located on the___
fovea
many __ feed into the ___ cell
rods, ganglionic
almost all sensory goes through the ___ before projected to the ___
thalamus, cortex
rods are useful in __ vision
night
name 5 of Gestalt's principles
proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, simplicity
chunks of a cat would be considered what kind of principle
closure
6 vertical lines that form 3 columns would be considered what principle
proximity
with a diagram of 3 triangles, 3 circles, 3 triangles we get what principle
similarity
a wave going through a straight line is what principle
continuity
2 circles of dots intersecting is what principle
simplicity
what is critical for form perception
experience
what two men were associated with feature detection- orientation and spatial frequency?
hubel and wiesel
sensory input is the beginning of
cognitive processing
in the human eye, the focusing process is accomplished by the ___ and ___
cornea and lens
light first passes through the ___ and the pupil before traveling through the ___
cornea, lens
light completes its journey when it reaches a thin layer of tissue called the __
retina
these are sensitive at low levels of illumination
rods
these are concentrated in the periphery of the retina
rods
these are not sensitive to visual detail
rods
these are concentrated in the center of the retina, the fovea
cones
these are not very sensitive at low levels of illumination
cones
these have a high level of sensitivity to detail, high visual acuity
cones
there are about 120 million ___ and 6 million __
rods cones
dim images can sometimes be seen better out of __
the corner of your eyes
once the neural impulse is generated by a rod or cone, its passed along to other cells, particularly ____which feed info from the receptors to the ___
bipolar cells, ganglion cells
the visual signals eventually leave the retina to deeper processing stations, through a collection of nerve fibers called the
__
optic nerve
because of its size, at the point where the optic nerve leaves each retina there is no room for visual receptors, this creates __
blind spot
after leaving the retina, the neural impulses flow along each optic nerve until they reach the __
optic chiasm ( where info travels to the separeate hemispheres of the brain)
each ganglion cell has a ____, which means it recieves input from a group of receptor cells and responds only when a particular pattern of light shines across the retina
receptive field
in vision, this is the portion of the retina that when stimulated, causes teh activity of higher order neurons to change
receptive field
what law says if the elements of a display are close to each other, that is they lie in close spatial proximity- they tend to be grouped together as part of the same object
proximity
processing that is controlled by the physical message delivered to the senses
bottom up processing
processing that is controlled by ones beliefs and expectations about how the world is organized
top down processing
items that share physical properties-that physically resemble each other are palced into the same set
similarity
even if a figure has a gap or a small amount of its border is missing, people still tend to percieve the object as a whole
closure
if lines cross or are interrupted people tend to still see flowing lines
continuation
if things appear to be moving in the same direction people tend to group them together
common fate
what is precognition
knowing something will happen before it happens
what is telepathy
communicating through mind
what is clairvoyance
object to person
example: knowing how a coin flipped without seeing it
what is psychokinesis
moving objects with mind
who is Rhine
serious scientist in this line of work (extrasensory psych) , but a student falsified data in his lab so no one took him seriously
what was a popular area of study 120 years ago
extrasensory psychology
extrasensory psychology is often confused with what
spiritualism -
(houdini)
thousands of trials are run so there is a ___ effect
statistical
hollywood portrays clairvoyance as perfectly psychic but in psychic literature there are always ____
hits and misses
who is more likely to be psychic
earlier born, children more than adults, women more than men, and it runs in families
what is a big concern about the researchers of extrasense. psych.
they are biased. people want to prove something and beleive these phenomena are real
when people make guesses, they remember the hits more than the misses so __ is merely chance
precognition
when trying to convey ___ actors will describe the 5 main human problems to appeal to large audiences
telepathy
the bottom line is that there are many ___ to ESP and that there are no known ___ or ____(operational definition)
alternative explanations, measurements
what is an explanation of helen kellers clairvoyance
if blindfolded u can tell the different colors of things by heat
how did gellar fool people with his clairvoyant drawings
there was a reciever in his tooth. also an assistant by the machine
dowsing for water. how so?
scientific explanations with electromagnetic cues
what did the amazing james randi do?
he hosted britains best and offered large money for psychological phenomena. no one could do it
what is CSICOP?
committee for the scientific investigation of claims of the paranormal
what is cold reading and who is a philosopher of it
Cold reading refers to a set of techniques used by professional manipulators to get a subject to behave in a certain way or to think that the cold reader has some sort of special ability that allows him to "mysteriously" know things about the subject. (shermer) telepathy
king of illusionism?
houdini
definition for what consciousness is:
subject awareness, attention, thinking
what consciousness is not:
automaticity (driving), role in simple judgements, learning, or envrionmental scanning (cocktail party)
what is the generalized model of attention:
stage 1- automatic processing or pre-attentive
stage 2- controlled processing or attentive
what is EEG
Electroencephalography, the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain
the ___ is paying attention to things in the environment that your attention is not. there is lots of potential stimulation
limbic system
at birth what percent of the time of sleep is REM
1/3
your deepest sleep occurs when
first 2 hours
night terrors occur in what stage of sleep
4th
examples of sleep deprivation effects
viscious animals. stresses put on body break down immune system.
short term sleep deprivation results in loss of __ and ___ performance
cognitive , motor
dreams occur during
REM
daily shift in sleep cycle driven by __
endogenous things.... light
sleep involves systematic changes in ___
EEG
spinde is an increase then decrease in __ and __ generated by the ___
amplitude, frequency, limbic system
sleep cycle. what is slow wave
decreased cerebral blood flow, metabolism, and Gh release
psychodynamic models. emphasis on __ to __. introspection is in the
unconscious to conscious. past
cognitive models. emphasis on __. introspection in the __
conscious. present
the american psychologist ___ ___ was convinced that consciousness flows
william james
the internal processes used to set priorities for mental functioning
attention
the ability to focus on one auditory message and ignore others. also refers to the tendency to notice when your name suddenly appears in a message that youve been actively ignoring
cocktai party effect
fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention
automaticity
biological activities that rise and fall in accordance with a 24-hr cycle
circadian rythms
when a subject is awake the EEG pattern is __ and ___. and the waves have ___ amplitude
fast, irregular, low
___, ___ amplitude waves of ___ frequency reflect neural synchrony
regular, high, low
the first official sign of sleep, stage 1, is marked by waves of __ amplitude and slightly more __
low, irregular
in stage __ the sleep activity is interrupted by short bursts of activity called ___
2, sleep spindles
slow wave sleep is what stages
3 &4
sleep functions to ___ or __ the body and brain
restore repair
freud beleived that dreaming was a psychological mechanism for __ ___, a way to satisfy forbidden wishes and desires
wish fullfillment
repeated cycles of brain activity each about __ minutes occur during sleep
90
rem occurs __ to __ minutes into sleep cycle
70, 90
most cognitive developmentalists focus on ___
children
what are two different ways of viewing a child
some see them as small adults rather than developmentally challenged. some say they have innate patterns rather than blank slates.
two methods of study of cognitive development:
longitudinal- follow certain individual over time (less variation). cross-sectional- look at 3 diff ages at once- (less time)
importance of early experience:
sensitive and criticcal periods. ex. need of light.
but doesnt preclude lifetime development
paiget's first stage of cognitive development, lasting from birth to 2 years. schemata revolve around sensory and motor abilities.
sensorimotor period
chomsky and LAD say that talking will occur in this sequence of sensorimotor:
coo--babble--word--two word utterances
the ability to recognize that objects still exist when they're no longer in sight
object permanence (recognition of parents, fear of strangers)
this stage involves reflexes such as rooting and suckling, object exploration & permanence, and contingincies
sensorimotor
paiget's second stage of cognitive development lasting from age 2-7, children begin to think symbolically, and often lack the ability to perform mental operations such as conservation
preoperational period
this stage involves egocentrism, animism, dreams/reality, use of symbols, transductive logic, and two word phrases
preoperational
the ability to recognize that the physical properties of an object remain the saim despite changes in object appearance
law of conservation (ex. size glasses of milk)
the tendency to see the world from ones own unique perspective only; a characteristic of thinking in preoperational period
egocentrism
paiget's 3rd stage, age 7-11. children aquire the capacity to perform a number of mental operations but still lack the ability for abstract reasoning
concrete operational period
this stage includes reality from nonreality, conducts mental operations without observables, law of conservation, reversibility, language: passive = active
concrete operational period
paigets last stage, thought processes become adult like, and people gain mastery over abstract thinking.
formal operational period
this is the concept that one kind of operation can produce change and that another kind of operation can undo that change
reversibility
a change in some neurocognitive mechanism,, quantitative (small)
assimilation
qualitative steps in childs understanding (large)
accomidation
innatimate objects come to life
animism
guesses of mechanism in the childs viewing of the world
schemata
criticisms of paiget
stage vs gradual, he used his own children, underestimated abilities, importance of social environment, interpretation and nature of language
private speech and egocentrism reinterpretated by ___
vygotsky
this was charles darwins cousin. obesessed with individual variation. he tested intelligence by response time
galton
this man believed in helping children in classrooms. saw children as unique individuals
binet
this man said intelligence is the cognitive ability to pick up info quickly. he came up with the predictor of academic experience (g-factor)
spearman
this person said theres 2 factors to intelligence. fluid (processing) and crystallized (memory/content)
catell
this man says that intelligence isnt just education. he came up with 7-8 categories
gardner
what are gardners catergories
logical/mathematical, linguistic, spatial, body, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
binet/simon tested what
logical/mathematical, linguistic, spatial
who came up with the IQ notion
terman
WISC- 4 aspects
verbal, nonverbal, reliability, validity
what are the two arguments about what affects intelligence
genome vs. nurturance
3 determinants of testing performance
sensory/perception, cognition, motivation
short term determinants of test performance
rapport with tester, emotional status, nutrition, attention
who conducted twin studies to see if genes affect intelligence
burt
the natural ability to solve problems, reason, and remember. thought to be relatively uninfluenced by experience
fluid intelligence
the knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience
crystallized intelligence
a measure of the consistency of test results, these produce similar scores from one administration to the next
reliability
an assessment of how well a test measures what its supposed to measure
validity
mental age, divided by chronical age and then multiplied by 100
intelligence quotient
a mathematical index that represents the extent to which IQ differences in a particular population can be accounted for by genetic factors
heritability
____suggested that the people least competent to survive in the world were the ones reproducing the fastest,
shockley
in ______ estimation, over 70% of the within race IQ variability was due to genetic factors, and the 30% left over was due to non-shared environmental influences
jensens
what are some environmental effects of racial differences in performace
economic factors, toxic elements, educational experience, cultural biases, self-perceptions
who wrote about the stereotype threat of intelligence
steele
who is the father of behaviorism
watson
stimus response theoryists believe in this kind of learning
operant
the decline in the tendency to respond to an event that has become familiar through repeated exposure
habituation
increased responsiveness or sensitivity to an event that has been repeated
sensitization
a set of procedures used to investigate how organisms learn about the signaling properties of events.
classical conditioning
a stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to any trainging
unconditioned stimulus
the observable response that is produced automatically prior to training on presentation of an unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
the acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response
the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning
conditioned stimulus
who developed classical conditioning?
pavlov
presenting a conditioned stimulus repeatedly after conditioning without the unconditioned stimulus resulting in a loss in responding
extinction
the recovery of an extinquished conditioned response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
conditioned responding becomes stronger with repeated CS-US pairings
acquisition
what is the law of effect
if a response is followed by a reinforcer you will increase that behavior
what is the law of temporal contiguity
there must be immediacy with reinforcement
a procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions
operant conditioning
response consequences that increase the likelihood of responding in a similar way
reinforcement
reinforcement is delivered only some of the time after the response has occured
partial reinforcement
a procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions
operant conditioning
consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again
punishment
reinforcement is delivered only some of the time after the response has occured
partial reinforcement
an exact replica of an environmental message, which usually lasts for a second or less
sensory memory
this category of memory includes episodic and semantic
explicit (declarative conscious
a limited capacity system that we use to hold information after it has been analyzed for periods lasting less than a minute or two
short term memory
a short-term memory strategy that involves rearranging incoming information into meaningful or familiar patterns
chunking
this category of memory includes procedural, classical, and priming
implicit (nondeclarative conscious)
the system used to maintain information for extended periods of time
long term memory
a memory for a particular event or episode that happened to you personally such as remembering what u ate for breakfast this morning or where u went on vacation last year
episodic memory
knowledge about the world, stored as facts that make little or no reference to one's personal experience
semantic memory
knowledge about how to do things such as riding a bike or swinging a golf club
procedural memory
an encoding process that involves the formation of connections between to-be-remembered input and other information in memory
elaboration
who was involved with memory reconstruction?
loftus
what is tempo of rehearsals
spaced vs massed