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45 Cards in this Set

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Rescorla-Wagner
Association lab test with rats. give rats a tone w/o shock. 2nd group got shocked 1/2 the time. then got shocks with no tones. Found that the rats who heard the tone and then got shocked were more prepared for the shock. No prediction=no association
Skinner- Operate Conditioning
responses are controlled by their consequences. when consequence of response increases the behavior either increases or decreases
supersticious behavior
in animals- being trained. behavior that is accidently reinforced; repitition becomes comfortable
amygdala
brighter the better the memory; activates by emotion to say 'don't forget it' important
man with the 20 minute memory
caused by viral encephilitis which destroyed his hyppocampus.
Actions- he records everything but he doenst awknowledge it as emotions. every moment is first awakening. has no memory of having aquired knowledge "unconcious"
did not lose precedural (what you do)
lost declarative (dates, names)
Classical
Two things collide
UCS, UCR, CS, CR
stimulus generalization
generalize that association
operant
increases likelihood or repeated reinforcment
reinforcers
primary vs. secondary
punishments
immediate, harsh, consistant
extinction
responses leaves after association leaves; after a break in time, spontaneous reversal then drastic fall w/o association
stimulus discrimination
not generalize stimulers
negative punishment
removing pleasant stimuli
learning
a relativly permanent change in an organism's behavior do to experience
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. the event may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
Pavlov
classical conditioning
UCR- unconditional response
the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the UCS such as salivation when food is in the mouth
classical conditioning
an organism comes to associate stimuli. a neural stimulus that signals a UCS begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditional stimulus.
CR- conditioned response
response to the previously neutral CS
CS- conditioned stimulus
an origionally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with a UCS comes to trigger a conditioned response
aequisition in classical conditioning
the initial stage. the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to a conditioned response.
aequisition in operate conditioning
the strengthening of a reinforced response
behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today argue with (1) but not (2)
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance after a rest period of an extinguished conditioned response
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
discrimination
the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by punisher
skinner
respondant and operant behavior
respondant behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic respnse to some stimulus
operant behavior
research used for behavoir modification.
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
operant conditioning
responses are controlled by their consequences
Thorndike's principle of law of effect
behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely
operant chamber/skinner box
contains a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animals' rate of bar pressing or key pecking
shaping (successive approximations)
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response
negaive reinforcment
strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive stimulus
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stiumulus such as one that satisfies a biological need like food, sex, and water
secondary reinforcer/ conditional reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. How to obtain primary reinforcer
Schedules of Reinforcement
Ratio- depends on #
Interval- depends on time
continuous reinforcment
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermitted) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time.
slower aquisition of response.
greater resistance to extinction.
GANBLING
FR- fixed ratio
reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
depends on # of RESPONSES BEFORE REINFORCEMENT
VR- variable ratio
reinforces a response after an unpredictible number of responses.
depends on TIME BETWEEN REINFORCEMENT
I1- fixed interval
reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
depends on TIME BETWEEN REINFORCEMENT
VI- variable interval
reinforces a respnse at UNPREDICTALBE TIME intervals