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53 Cards in this Set

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These are chemicals that cause harm to an embryo
teratogens
He said that babies come pre-wired with fundamental language
Noam Chomsky
Made 4 stages of cognitive development
Piaget
These are the 4 stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
In this stage of cognitive development children use senses and motor skills to learn about the world and develop object permanence.
sensorimotor
In this stage of cognitive development children use symbolic thinking to understand the world but remain egocentric and lack the metal operations that allow logical thinking.
preoperational
In this stage of cognitive development children gain cognitive operations for logical thinking but cannot reason abstractly.
Concrete operational
In this stage of cognitive development further development of cognitive operations enables adolescents to engage in abstract thinking and hypothetical-deductive reasoning.
formal operational
Developed 8 psychological stages
Erikson
Psychological stage where infants learn that they can or cannot trust others to take care of their basic needs
Trust vs. mistrust
Psychological stage where children learn to be self-sufficient in many activities such as toilet raining, walking, and exploring. If restrained too much they start doubting abilities and feel shame.
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Psychological stage where children learn to assume more responsibility by taking initiative but will feel guilty if they overstep limits set by parents.
Initiative vs. guilt
Psychological stage where children learn to be competent by mastering new intellectual, social, and physical skills or feel inferior if they fail to develop these skills.
Industry vs. inferiority
Psychological stage where adolescents develop a sense of identity by experimenting with different roles. No role experimentation may result in role confusion.
Identity vs. role confusion
Psychological stage where young adults form intimate relationships with others or become isolated because of a failure to do so.
Intimacy vs. isolation
Psychological stage where middle-aged adults feel they are helping the next generation through their work and child rearing, or they stagnate because they feel that they are not helping.
Generativity vs. stagnation
Psychological stage where older adults assess their lives and develop a sense of integrity if they find their lives have been meaningful and a sense of despair if their lives do not seem meaningful.
Integrity vs. despair
Developed a morality theory, stage theory of moral reasoning.
Kohlberg
Said we act on rewards and punishments
Kohlberg
the knowledge that the quantitative properties of objects remain the same despite change in appearance
conservation
the tendency ot focus on only one aspect of a problem at a time
centration
people of a given age are affected by factors unique to their generation, leading to differences in performance between generations
cohort effects
The first level of reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on avoiding punishment and looking out for your own welfare and needs.
preconventional level of moral reasoning
The first level of reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on social rules and laws
conventional level of moral reasoning
The first level of reasoning in Kohlberg's theory of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on self-chosen universal ethical principles (with human rights taking precedence over laws) and the avoidance of self-condemnation for violating such principles
postconventional level of moral reasoning
the set of innate tendencies or dispositions that lead a person to behave in certain ways
temperament
a style of parenting in which the parents are demanding, expect unquestioned obedience, are not responsive to their children's desires, and communicate poorly with their children
authoritarian parenting
a style of parenting in which the parents are demanding but set rational limits for their children and communicate well with their children
authoritative parenting
a style of parenting in which the parents make few demands and are overly responsive to their children's desires, letting their children do pretty much as they please.
permissive parenting
a style of parenting in which the parents minimize both the time they spend with their children and their emotional involvement with them and provide for their children's basic needs, but little else
uninvolved parenting
Developed theory of death and dying
Kubler Ross
Stages of death and dying
1) Denial
2) anger
3) bargaining
4) depression
5) acceptance
Said personality develops because of fight between ID and superego
Freud
part of the personality that person is born with, where the biological instinctual drives reside and that is located totally in the unconscious mind
id
the part of the personality that starts developing in the first year or so of life to find realistic outlets for the id's instinctual drives
ego
playful child part of personality
id
critical parent part of personality
superego
tries to keep the id and superego balanced
ego
part of personality that represents one's conscience and idealized standards of behavior
superego
These were neo-freudians
Adler, Horney, Jung
Said personality developed from a feeling of inferiority
Adler
Said personality was shaped by feelings of helplessness and insecurity
Horney
Said personality comes from a combination of our collective unconscious and what we think of ourselves
Jung
A test that gives a patient an ambiguous picture and is asked to explain it
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Fairly stable units of personality that persist over time
traits
____ + _____ = behavior
traits + situation
Test designed to find mental disorders
MMPI
Test for mentally healthy people
CPI
Personality develops from our feelings about ourself, self-esteem, inborn capacity to grow, reach our full potential
Huamanistic (Maslo)
Our personality develops because our conflicts between our pleasure seeking and our social restraint
Psychoanalytic
Our personality develoips because we are biologically influenced by certain characteristics that determine our behavior
Traits
Behind humanistic personality theory
Maslo
Behind psychoanalytic personality theory
Freud