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39 Cards in this Set

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Psychotherapy
Treatment in which a trained professional-a therapist-uses psychological techniques to help a person overcome psychological difficulties and disorders, resolve problems in living, or bring about personal growth.
Biomedical therapy
Therapy that relies on drugs and other medical procedures to improve psychological functioning.
Eclectic approach to therapy
Using a variety of methods as a part of treatment.
Clinical Psychologists
Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Psy.D. who have also completed a postgraduate internship. They specialize in assessment and treatment of psychological difficulties.
Counseling Psychologists.
Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Ed.D. who typically treat day-to-day adjustment problems, often in a university mental health clinic.
Psychiatrists
M.D.s with postgraduate training in abnormal behavior. Because they can prescribe medication, they often treat the most severe disorders.
Psychoanalysts
Either M.D.s or psychologists who specialize in psychoanalysis, the treatment technique first developed by Freud.
Licensed Professional Counselors or Clinical Mental Health Counselors
Professionals with a master's degree who provide therapy to individuals, couples, and families and who hold a national or state certification.
Clinical or Psychiatric Social Workers
Professionals with a master's degree and specialized training who may provide therapy, usually regarding common family and personal problems.
Psychodynamic threapy
Therapy that seeks to bring unresolved past conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious, where patients may deal with the problems more effectively.
Psychoanalysis
Freudian psychotherapy in which the goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and feelings in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior.
Types of defense mechanisms
1) repression-most common
2) projection
A YAVIS client
Young, Attractive, Verbal, Intelligent, Successful
Transference
The transfer of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patient's parents or other authority figures.
Techniques of psychoanalytical therapy
1) Free association - just talk
2) Dream interpretation - manifest and latent content
Resistance
The inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories, thoughts, or motivations.
Behavioral treatment approaches
Treatment approaches that build on the basic processes of learning, such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal behavior are both learned.
Aversive Conditioning
A form of therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an aversive, unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior.
Systematic desensitization
A behavioral technique in which gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety.
A hierarchy of fears
A list, in order of increasing severity, of the things you associate with your fears.
Exposure
A behavioral treatment for anxiety in which people are confronted, either suddenly or gradually, with a stimulus that they fear.
Gradual exposure
Patients are exposed to a feared stimulus in gradual steps.
Token system
Rewards a person for desired behavior with a token.
Contingency Contracting
A written agreement between the therapist and client establishing the goals and the positive consequences of reaching those goals.
Observational learning
The process in which the behavior of other people is modeled to systematically teach people new skills and ways of handling their fears and anxieties.
Dialectical behavior therapy
A form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to accept who they are, regardless of whether it matches their ideal.
Cognitive treatment approaches
Treatment approaches that teach people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves.
Cognitive-behavioral approach
A treatment approach that incorporates basic principle of learning to change the way people think.
Rational-emotive behavior therapy
A form of therapy that attempts to restructure a person's belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior.
A-B-C model of rational-emotive behavior therapy
Negative ACTIVATING Condition (break-up).
Irrational BELIEF System ("I'll never be loved again").
Emotional CONSEQUENCES (anxiety, loneliness, sadness, depression).
Cognitive appraisal
Clients are asked to evaluate situations, themselves, and others in terms of their memories, values, beliefs, thoughts and expectations.
Humanistic therapy
Therapy in which the underlying rationale is that people have control of their behavior, can make choices about their lives , and are essentially responsible for solving their own problems.
Person-centered (client-centered) therapy
Therapy in which the goal is to reach one's potential for self-actualization
Methods of nondirective counseling
reflection & clarification
Methods of person-centered therapy
Unconditional positive regard & a demonstration that therapist is caring, nonjudgmental, and empathetic
Interpersonal therapy (IPT)
Short-term therapy that focuses on the context of current social relationships
Group therapy
Therapy in which people meet in a group with a therapist to discuss problems
Family therapy
An approach that focuses on the family and its dynamics
Spontaneous remission
Recovery without treatment. Initially proposed by Hans Eysenck.