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135 Cards in this Set

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Law of Parsimony
adapt the simplest explanation with the fewest assumptions
Statistically Significant
statement of how likely it is that a result occurred by chance
Correlation
*measure of the extent that two factors vary together. How well either factor predicts the other.
Placebo
any effect on behavior by the expectation of the inert substance . Fake Drug. Latin I shall Please
Introspection
study by looking inside
William James
under influence of Charles Darwin
wanted to know functions of our thoughts and feelings FUNCTIONALISM
Max Wertheimer
GESTALT Kofka and Kohler. Study insight. clear perception of something. Ape Sultan. Put stick inside cage. banana outside. work out in your head
John Watson
observable behavior. rooted in observation. observe and record behavior in different situations
Case Study
oldest research method. study one individual in great depth in hope of finding something about us all.
Naturalistic Observation
observing and recording behavior in natural situations. WITHOUT manipulate and controlling the situation.
Experiment
Manipulate and control factors (IV) to observe the effect of some behavior (DV)
Representative Sample
People with different views. Unbiased sample
Operational Definition
Statement of the procedure used to define research variable.
Coorelational Study
collect two factors, which are unlike, and see if they are.
Extraneous Variable
could cause a changed result from outside forces not accounted for
Hypothesis
Testable prediction. often implied by a theory
Gestalt
how the mind organizes feelings into perception. "A whole"
Max Wertheimer and Kofka and Kohler
Functionalism
purposes of consciousness- what the mind does and why- William James James Angell
Behaviorism
learning plays key roles in influencing behavior. record behavior in different situations John Watson B.F Skinner
Structuralism
used INTROSPECTION. identify elements of conscious experience. smell a scent. Wundt Titchener
Psychoanalysis
unconscious mind exerts control over behavior. child hood experience. personality. Freud
Psychiatrist
Has MD can prescribe medicine. treat physical causes of psychological disorders.
Clinical Psychologist
assess and treat mental, emotional, behavior disorders
Counseling Psychologist
help people cope with challenges by giving resources
Forensic Psychologist
deals with legal issues and law
Independent Variable
experimental factor that is manipulated, variable whose effect is being studied. ex: breast milk or formula
Dependent Variable
outcome factor. variable may change in response to IV. (Intelligence scores)
Experimental Variable
in a double blind procedure, participants are exposed to treatments
Control Group
not exposed to treatment. given placebo
Recognition
need to identify items previously learned. (MC)
Free Recall
must retrieve information previously learned. (Fill in the Blank)
Paired Associative Learning
learning that certain events occur together
Serial Learning
tendency to recall best the last and first items on a list.
Storage
get info into our brains. retention of programmed info over time
Encoding
retain that info by processing into memory systems
Retrieval
Later get it out
Rehersal
Constant repition, either to store in long-term or to be forgotten never encoded.
Primary Memory
any indication that learning has persisted over time. ability to store and retrieve info
Sensory Memory
immediate brief recording of info in the memory. Feelings
Long-term Memory
relatively permanent limitless storehouse of memory. knowledge skills and experiences.
Short-term Memory
hold a few items briefly, later stored or forgotten
Elaborative
Learning by connecting to other stuff and making sense of it.
Implicit (Procedural)
learning how to do something. retention of conscious recollection
Semantic
encoding of meaning. of words.
Episodic
Memory of event instead of words
Explicit
memory of facts and experiences that you can consciously declare.
Flashbulb Memory
a clear memory of an emotional signifcant event
TOT
tip of the tongue
Storage
get info into our brains. retention of programmed info over time
Encoding
retain that info by processing into memory systems
Retrieval
Later get it out
Rehersal
Constant repition, either to store in long-term or to be forgotten never encoded.
Primary Memory
any indication that learning has persisted over time. ability to store and retrieve info
Sensory Memory
immediate brief recording of info in the memory. Feelings
Long-term Memory
relatively permanent limitless storehouse of memory. knowledge skills and experiences.
Short-term Memory
hold a few items briefly, later stored or forgotten
Elaborative
Learning by connecting to other stuff and making sense of it.
Storage
get info into our brains. retention of programmed info over time
Implicit (Procedural)
learning how to do something. retention of conscious recollection
Encoding
retain that info by processing into memory systems
Semantic
encoding of meaning. of words.
Retrieval
Later get it out
Episodic
Memory of event instead of words
Rehersal
Constant repition, either to store in long-term or to be forgotten never encoded.
Explicit
memory of facts and experiences that you can consciously declare.
Primary Memory
any indication that learning has persisted over time. ability to store and retrieve info
Flashbulb Memory
a clear memory of an emotional signifcant event
Sensory Memory
immediate brief recording of info in the memory. Feelings
TOT
tip of the tongue
Long-term Memory
relatively permanent limitless storehouse of memory. knowledge skills and experiences.
Short-term Memory
hold a few items briefly, later stored or forgotten
Elaborative
Learning by connecting to other stuff and making sense of it.
Implicit (Procedural)
learning how to do something. retention of conscious recollection
Semantic
encoding of meaning. of words.
Episodic
Memory of event instead of words
Explicit
memory of facts and experiences that you can consciously declare.
Flashbulb Memory
a clear memory of an emotional signifcant event
TOT
tip of the tongue
Elizabethr LoftusGe
Remember things that are untue. memory fades with time. misinformation becomes easier to create false memories. traffic accidents
Herman Ebbinghaus
German. Verbal Memory. study memory more scientifically. Forgetting Curve
George Miller
Magical number 7. short term memory typically hold seven bits of information
Proactive Interference
disruptive effect of learning on recal of new info. Today interferes tomorrow. Cluttered Prior
Retroactive Interference
disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old info
Positve Transfer
sometimes old info can help our learning of new info
Negative Transfer
old info can interfere with learning of new info
Richard Atkinson Richard Shriffin
theory of STM and LTM. three stage processing. sensory, ST, LT.
Chunking
organizing items into familiar manageable units . 7 units.
3 sins of forgetting
Absent minded: inattention to details
Transcience: unused info fades
Blocking: inaccessibility of storage info
Kinds of Forgetting
Fading Disuse Interference
Poor Encoding
never really put into memory. never made it meaningful
3 sins of distortion
misattribution: putting words into mouth
suggestability: asking misleading ?s
Bias: Belief colored recollections
State depending Memories
what we learn in an emotional state is sometimes easier to reveal in that same state
Relearning
relearn more quicky. remember more than we recall
Priming/false memories
process of activating, often unconsciously, association
Mood Congruent/false memories
moods can bias memories. how we perceive the world depends on our mood
Mnemonic Device
use vivid imagery and organizational device
Loci Effect
remember lists of things. associating with whats in the house
Halo Effect
essay questions. put response in logical order
Peg Word System
ten is hen . nine in line. associating with rhyming.
Learning
relatively permanent change in our behavior due to experience
Maturation
biological growth process that enable change in behavior. not influenced by experience.
Ivan Pavlov
how organisms respond to stimuli
Classical conditioning. Learning can be studied objectively. Dog salvate to stimuli
John Watson
"Little Albert." human emotions and behavir, though biologically influenced, are a bundle of conditioned responses.
Rosalie Rayner
"Little Albert." showed how specific fears are conditioned. held a rat and struck a hammer behind his loud. associated rat with loud noises. had an affair and married Watson.
B.F Skinner
Skinner Box- cage where animals must do a task to receive a reward. Operant Conditioning. used shaping- reinforcers guiding behavior.
Edward Tolman
behaviorist. implicit learning. learning work on mapping. not aware you learned it until you have to produce it
Albert Bandura
Bobo doll. Children saw adult hitting doll then taken into a roll with the doll and children imitated the adult. Pioneer researcher of observational learning.
Classical Conditioning
organisms learn associats between events it does not control. physical. dog salvating.
Operant Conditioning
organism learn associations between behavior and resulting events. produce rewarding or punishing stimuli. voluntary
Respondent Conditioning
Classical Conditioning. have no choice but to respond.
Instrumental Conditioning
Operant Conditioning. you have to do something by doing x to receive a reward.
Extinction
diminishing of a conditioned response. a learned stimulation no longer signals an automatic response. only classical
Spontaneous Recovery
reappearance after a rest period. only classical
Generalization
tendency, once response has been conditioned, for similar stimuli to elicit similar responses. Stimuli=trigger something
Discrimination
learned ability to distinguish between a controlled and the taught stimuli that do not signal the intended response.
Phobias
anxiety disorder. marked by persisten fear and avoidance of specific object or situation
Continuous
desired behavior is reinforced everytime.
Intermittent
responses are sometime enforced sometimes not.
Fixed-Ratio
reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
Variable-Ratio
provide reinforcers after an unpredictable number of responses. slot machine
fixed-interval
reinforcers provided after a specificed time has elapses. (Check mail near delivery)
Variable-Interval
reinforce first response after varying time intervals.
Ratio
number of responses
Interval
how long it takes. (Time)
Primary Reinforcer
an innately reinforcement stimulus. satisfies a biological need. food water.
Secondary Reinforcer
Conditioned. learned. get power wit association with primary. Money
Positive Reinforcement
strengthens a response by giving a pleasurable stimulus. (Food for hungry animals)
Negative Reinforcement
Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an undesirable stimulus. (Take aspirin to relieve headache)
Punishment
an event that decreases the behavior ir follows. Posive: something happens, administer (Spanking). Negative: sometime taken away (timeout)
Latent Learning
learning that becomes apparent only when there is incentive to demonstrate it.
Observational Learning
observe and imitate others
Modeling
process of observing and imitating specific behavior
Insight
a sudden realization of the solution to the problem
Shaping
procedure where reinforeces, such as food, gradually guide an animals actions toward a desired behavior
Serial Enumeration
listing in order of sequence