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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the capacity for short term memory?
7 plus or minus 2.
Describe long term memory
Relatively "permanent" storage of information. The capacity is limitless. The information may go in but may not be easy for it to come back out; it is hard to retrieve. Also, it can be transformed, or changed. In addition, it can actually be forgotten.
Explicit (Declarative) memory
This is memory that requires concious recall.
Episodic memory
This is your personal memory for your personal experiences. An example of this would be your high school graduation. It has been described as your personal diary. It is also known as autobiographical memory.
Sematic memory
This is referring to your memory for "factual knowledge". It is also described as your own dictionary or encylopedia.
Implicit (non-declarative) memory
This is memory that just kind of burbles up; it just happens/comes up.
This is your memory of procedures. It usually describes a motor task. An example of this is knowing how to ride a bike.
There are memories for automatically conditioned responses.
Emotional memories
Emotions associated with certain memories.
This is about getting the information out of long-term memory. They usually use a verbal learning task.
Recognition vs. Recall
In recognition, the goal is to identify the appropriate response when it is included in other responses. A good example of this would be a multiple-choice test. Recall is when you have retrieve information with no cues. An example of this would be an essay test.
Serial position effect
The order, or the position, of the word has an effect on how well you recall it.
Primacy and recency efforts
Primacy- the tendency to remember things toward the beginning of the list.
Recency- refers to the things you saw last.
Memory deficits; organic- which means it is caused by physical damage.
Retrograde amnesia
This refers to your inability to remember things that happened before the incident, or accident.
After the incident, usually after a stroke, people are unable to form new long-term memories. They can remember old "explicit" memories. You can also sometimes learn new "implicit" memories.
Infantile/child amnesia
Refers to the finding that most of us can't remember anything, particuarily episodic memory, before the age of 3. One theory for this is that their hippocampus is not fully developed yet.
What happens if the hippocampus is damaged?
You will have problems with explicit memory formation.
What happends if the cerebellum is damaged?
You will have problems with implicit memories.
Automatic vs. effortful processing
Automatic- it occurs sub-conciously. It is automatic and does not require your attention.
Effortful- you have to pay attention. You have to conciously try to put it into long-term memory.
Shallow processing
Repeating a phone number, then trying to remember it.
Deep "sematic" processing
This has an attached meaning to it.
Elaborative rehearsal
This is linking things in short-term memory into things you already have in long-term memory.
Self-reference effect
You want to make it meaningful to you.
Encoding specificity principle
These are specific characteristics that will help you encode information into long-term memory. They can also help you retrieve information out of long-term memory.
Context-dependent memory
Information that is encoded in one physical environment is best recalled when you are in the same physical environment.
State-dependent memory
Things that are learned when you are in one psysiological state are best retrieved when you are in the same physiological state.
Mood-dependent memory
Information that you learn in one mood is going to be best recalled when you are in the same mood.
Mood congruence effect
This refers to the fact that whatever mood you are in will trigger memories you have had when you were in the same mood.
Using a familiar location to remember elements.
These are verbal images. It usually starts with a verbal peg/rhyme that you already have in mind. Then you hang new information on these pegs.
First letter (acronym)
Rhymes and Sayings
Practice and Spacing
If you cram everything together it is called mass practice. Distributive practice is when you learn a little and take a break and so on. Over learning is when you learn something and the proceed to do that task beyond the point of initial learning.
Encoding failure theory
This means that you fail to code information into long-term memory.
Storage decay theory
The idea is that the information decays over time. This will be particuarily true when you talk about sensory and short-term memory.
Interference theory
This could be true of any of the levels, but particuarily for long-term memory. In general, it refers to the relationship between old and new information.
The old information jumps out and blocks the new information. An example of this is taking a different language later in life.
The new information keeps you from accessing the old information. An example of this would be switching from a MAC to an IBM.
Cue-dependent theory
To find something in memory, you ofen need a cue. The idea is that you can't access the desired information because you don't have a retrieval cue.
Frameworks for our knowledge about people, objects, events, and actions that allow us to organize and interpret information about our world.
False memories
This is when you pull out a memory but you attribute it to the wrong source.
Misinformation effect
As information goes into memory; it can be distorted by misleading information.
Weapons focus
The idea that you focus on the weapon that the person has, and you don't focus on the other details.
Survey, question, read, recite, review.
What is the definition of thinking?
The processing of information to solve problems and make judgements and decisions.
Part of the framework that we use to interpret and organize information. A set of beliefs about something based on our past experiences.
What are the 5 characteristics of schema?
-We develop schemas during childhood and they develop based on our past experiences.
-They allow us to organize and interpret information, which helps us to catagorize things.
-They give meaning to each new experience.
-They will influence what you remember and retrieve.
-Schemas and concepts can be changed, usually by new experiences.
Mental representation of a sensory experience. They help us to understand absract concepts. With images, we can actually manipulate them.
Refers to a system of communication using sound or other symbols to convey information.
The study of how language is aquired, perceievd, comprehended, and produced.
Refers to a situation where there is a goal, but it is not always clear how to reach the goal.
What is the 1st stage of problem-solving? Please describe.
Statement of the Problem
Problem interpretation- this is how you state the problem; how you catagorize the problem.
What is a well-defined problem?
This is one that is very clear. We know where the issue started, we know the goal state, and we know how to get there.
What is an ill-defined problem?
This is when you don't have one or more of the characteristics needed to solve a problem.
What is the 2nd stage of problem-solving?
Generating Solutions
Trial and Error
You try things guessing the correct answer. It is time consuming and you don't always get the right answer.
Information Retrieval
This is when you get the info from previous knowledge. A problem with this is that you are not an expert in everything.
This refers to a step-by-step procedure that guarentees the right solution.
What is a heuristic?
It is a personal-problem rule, based on personal experience. It allows you to simplify, but does not guarentee a solution.
What is hill-climbing?
This is where each step moves you closer to a final goal (no detours or going back).
What is mean-end analysis?
This is when the problem is broken down into sub-goals which allow us to decreae the distance to the goal state (detours allowed).
Working backward
This is solving the problem working from the goal state backward to the start state.
Anchoring and adjustment
This is when an initial estimate (1st impression) is made and used as an anchor, and then we adjust our anchor up or down (although this adjustment is not always accurate).
What is fixation?
This is when you become fixed on one interpretation.
What is functional fixedness?
This is when we look at an object and only find one use for that object.
What is mental-set?
This is the tendency to percieve and approach a problem only in a certain way.
What is decision making?
It is the process of chosing among various solutions.
The rational-economic approach
They assume that all humans are perfectly rational; we know all potential solutions to a problem and the consequences that come with them.
Optimal decisions
Perfect, but it is assuming the rational-economic apporach.
The administrative approach
We recognize cognitive psychologists recognize that people are limited in their rationality, so they make satisfycing decisions.
Representativeness heuristic
A personal rule for judging (estimating) the probability of membership on a catagory by how well the object represents the catagory.
Conjunction fallacy
Incorrectly judging the overlap of 2 uncertain events to be more probable than the likelihood of either of the 2 events.
Gambler's fallacy
The belief that an event, which has not occured for awhile, is more likely to occur.
Availability heuristic
The belief that the more available an event is in our memory, the more probably it is.
Confimation bias
The tendency to seek evidence that confirms our beliefs.
Illusory correlation
The erroneous belief that 2 variables are related when they actually are not.
Belief perserverance
The tendency to cling to one's beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence (including the tendency to perhaps only collect information/evidence that supports ones beliefs).
Person-who reasoning
When we question a well established finding because we have a person who violates the finding.
Refers to the ability or abilities involved in learning and adapting behavior.
Spearman's General and Specific Factors
Initially is a function of a general underlying factor.
Thurstone's Multiple-Factor Theory
7 independent factors; can use and be strong in more than one.
Cattel's Crystalized vs. Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized- things that can be influenced by formal learning, increase with age.
Fluid- less likely to be influenced by formal learning, intutive intelligence, abstract reasoning, rote memory, and processing speed.
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
There are 3 info processing stratagies.
Traditional, good in verbal math.
Creative, able to solve novel problems and new situations (insight learning).
Practical, street smarts, ability to apply knowledge to the real world. They can choose a situation and change it to suit abilities.
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences- 8
Linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist.
Emotional Intelligences
EI/IQ- how well one can percieve, regulate, and understand one's emotions and the emotions of others.
The Stanford-Binet (Terman)
School related to discern needs, determine mental age. it is used between the ages of 3 and 18.
What are the two types of Weschler scales?
What is WAIS-R?
This is arranged by content: verbal scale and content scale.
What is WISC-R?
This is when there is not leway for creativity.
Group testing
This is when they use pen and paper; it is efficient. The problem is that it does not allow for disabilities.
Non-verbal testing
This is designed for non-english speakers and pre-verbal individuals. It is used as an attempt to reduce Eurocentric "skew".
Psychometrics and testing
This is the study of mental measurement.
Deviation IQ scores
100 plus or minus 15x. X is the number of standard deviations the person is from the raw score mean set for their standardized group.
The process that allows test scores to be interpreted by providing norms.
-The test is given to a large sample that is represenative of the population- in a standard set-up.
-Norms (including average scores) are set-up.
-Individual scores are then compared to these norms.
The extent to which scores on the test are consistent and stable.
Test REL
-Give the test to the person of sample.
-Wait for a period of time.
-Give the same test to the same person or sample.
-Correlate scores (should be .90).
Alternate forms of REL
-Give the test to a person or sample.
-Wait for a period of time.
-Give an equivilant test to the same set of people.
-Correlate scores.
Split half reliability
-Give the test to the person or sample.
-Split the test into halves (even vs. odd) or (first vs. second half).
-Correlate scores between halves.
Does this test measure what it's supposed to measure (content validity) or predict what is supposed to measure (predictive validity).
Content validity
Items in test are developed by experts to make sure the items represent the content that is to be tested.
Predictive validity
-Test is given to a person or sample.
-Related estimates of the construct are also collected.
-Test score and other estimates are correlated.
Construct validity
-The test is given to a person or sample.
-Another test of the construct is given to the same person/sample.
-Scores are correlated.
IQ and expectations
Self-fulfillinf prophecies.
IQ and success
Predictor of academic successes, but not job performances. (However, does predict in job training).
IQ and sex differences
No real differences in IQ. There is more variations within these groups than between them.
IQ and SES
High- rich
Medium- middle class
Low- poor
There is a moderate correlation (positive), about .3, between SES and IQ. In general, the higher your SES, the higher your IQ.
IQ and heredibility
An index of the degree that variation of a trait within a given population is due to heredity. It is estimated at 50-70%.
What did Skels do?
He was working in an oprhanage setting. He found that a number of babies, after being tested, showed to have low IQ. He paird some of the children with mentally impaired women, and found that their IQ went up. The children that were left alone had their IQ's stay the same or go down.
Reaction range
The genetic ally determined limits for an individual's intelligence.
Flynn Effect
The finding that the average intelligence score in the US and other industrialized nations had steadily gone up over the last century.
Savant performace
A person who scores at the MR low level on an IQ test, but has a highly specialized talent.