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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nefertiti was disappointed yet again. She had been so certain that once she was made
partner in the firm and could get a BMW lease car she would be happy. However, after
achieving these goals, she still felt unfulfilled. Maslow would say that Nefertiti was
controlled by a(n)
A condition of worth. C deficiency orientation.
B unconscious conflict. D Electra complex.
C
Matilde is driven by her perceived need to acquire material things and therefore does not
focus on the skills and experiences that she does have. Maslow’s growth theory of
personality would suggest that she is controlled by
A self-actualization. C a deficiency orientation.
B conditions of worth. D a growth orientation.
C
Jeff has just graduated from college and started his first job. He is very envious of his coworkers
because they graduated from college several years before he did and have big new
homes, boats, and so on. According to Maslow, Jeff has
A a deficiency orientation. C become self-actualized.
B a growth orientation. D compensated.
A
Celia is trying to decide whether to go to a party with some friends. Sherilyn says “Celia,
you should stay home and finish your paper. You need to keep up your grades and, besides,
you’ll feel guilty if you go out.” Noelle says, “Come out with me! It will be fun! Just blow
off your paper, it’s boring. Who cares about school?” Sherilyn is analogous to Freud’s
______________ and Noelle is analogous to Freud’s ______________.
A ego; superego C id; superego
B superego; ego D superego; id
D
As a teenager, Bridget complained to her mother about how small their house was compared
to those of her wealthy friends. Her mother always replied, “Be thankful we have a house.”
Bridget’s perceptions were guided by a(n) ______________ orientation, and her mother’s
were guided by a(n) ______________ orientation.
A peak; actualizing C actualizing; growth
B deficiency; growth D deficiency; peak
B
Rolf is dissatisfied with his life because his career is going nowhere and he is struggling to
avoid bankruptcy. If Rolf had a growth orientation, he would most likely
A change his behavior.
B focus more on the positive aspects of his life, such as his happy marriage.
C enter therapy to help him succeed in business.
D analyze his thought patterns in a systematic way to determine why he is not more
successful.
B
Which of the following statements about longitudinal studies of personality is false?
A People tend to put themselves in situations that reinforce their personality characteristics.
B Long-term consistencies in behavior seem to result from the mutual influences that
personality traits and environmental events have on one another.
C Researchers can determine how an individual will behave as an adult by examining the
individual’s temperament as a child.
D Childhood ill-temperedness is often reflected in adult behavior and functioning.
C
Heather and Manuelita were asked to complete different personality tests. Heather was
asked to draw a picture of her family on a piece of paper. Manuelita was asked to write a
story based on a picture of a man and a woman looking at each other. Heather completed
a(n) ______________ test and Manuelita a(n) ______________ test.
A objective; projective C projective; objective
B projective; projective D objective; objective
B
After Daniel had ballooned to a weight of 450 pounds, he became very stressed. When
confronted about his stress and weight problem by his wife, he said, “It is healthy for me to
maintain this weight because I’ll live longer if a famine occurs.” What defense mechanism
is Daniel using?
A Rationalization C Projection
B Repression D Displacement
A
The study of personality focuses primarily on
A social behaviors. C unconscious influences.
B abnormal behavior. D patterns of behavior and thinking.
D
According to Freud, if conflicts at any given psychosexual stage are unresolved, the
A person will be unconsciously preoccupied with the area of pleasure.
B person will become a chain smoker or an alcoholic.
C person will make a rapid transition to the next stage in the sequence.
D ego will fail to develop.
A
You notice that a classmate is always talking, chewing gum, or biting her fingernails during
class. Freud would most likely say that your classmate is fixated at the ______________
stage.
A phallic C anal
B genital D oral
D
Bradley is a little boy who wants to be just like his father and imitates everything his father
does. According to the Freudian theory of personality, he has probably just completed the
______________ stage.
A anal C phallic
B oral D genital
C
Cole has a difficult time maintaining stable love relationships, and he has conflicts with
authority figures. According to Freud’s psychodynamic theory, Cole is most likely fixated at
the ___________ stage of development.
A phallic C anal
B oral D genital
A
What is the correct order of Freud’s psychosexual stages?
A Anal; oral; latent; phallic; genital C Oral; anal; latent; phallic; genital
B Anal; genital; latent; oral; phallic D Oral; anal; phallic; latent; genital
D
Which of the following is a factor that Freud emphasized more than the neo-Freudian
theorists?
A The ego C Instinctual urges
B Conscious processes D Female psychosexual development
C
Suji spends a great deal of time meditating in a quiet environment in an attempt to get in
touch with her thoughts and feelings. Jung would most likely say that Suji has a high degree
of
A self-efficacy. C self-actualization.
B extraversion. D introversion.
D
Mack feels empty because he can never bear children and will play only a small role in
raising them. Karen Horney called this
A womb envy. C penis envy.
B the Electra complex. D the Oedipus complex.
A
Object relations theorists focus on the influence of ______________ on personality
development.
A womb envy C unconscious psychosexual conflicts
B attachment to caregivers D tendencies toward introversion and extraversion
B
At a very early age, Juanita formed a secure bond with her father. As she grew older, Juanita
gradually built up a tolerance to her father’s absence. Eventually, Juanita developed the
ability to relate to others as an independent, secure individual. These experiences are most
likely to be examined by a(n) _____________ theorist.
A five-factor C Jungian
B object relations D trait
B
Which of the following statements concerning Freud’s theory is false?
A Freud’s theory has been criticized for being sexist.
B Freud viewed his patients as suffering from id-motivated unconscious conflicts.
C Freud’s theory is the result of scientific measurement and testing.
D Most of Freud’s patients were upper-class Viennese women.
C
Which of these statements is not a criticism of Freudian theory?
A Some of Freud’s concepts cannot be scientifically tested.
B Most of Freud’s data were derived from an unrepresentative sample.
C Freudian theory does not place enough emphasis on human instinct.
D Freud focused more attention on male psychosexual development than on female
psychosexual development.
C
Which of the following is not a criticism of Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality?
A Human beings are viewed as creatures driven mostly by the need to gratify impulses.
B It is based almost entirely on case studies of a few individuals.
C It places too much emphasis on the observation and measurement of overt behaviors.
D His definition of the id, ego, and superego lack the precision required for scientific
measurement and testing.
C
Boyan is writing a paper discussing the criticisms of Freud’s psychodynamic approach to
personality. All of the following might appear in Boyan’s paper as a criticism except that
Freud’s
A concepts were too vague to be tested scientifically.
B sample was unrepresentative.
C focus was primarily on male psychosexual development.
D approach focused too much on learning.
D
Mithamo sees a red tricycle at the toy store and starts screaming to his parents that he wants
it. In fact, he tries to drag it out of the store. According to Freud, which part of Mithamo’s
personality is most responsible for his behavior in the toy store?
A Id C Superego
B Ego D Defense mechanisms
A
Fred prefers chocolate chip ice cream to pralines and cream. According to Allport, this is an
example of a ______________ trait.
A peripheral C central
B cardinal D secondary
D
After describing herself to the personnel director during a job interview, Jane added that she
liked to attend formal affairs. According to Allport, this preference is an example of a
______________ trait.
A central C secondary
B primary D cardinal
C
“Oh Mom!” gushed Sophie, “Bert is so kind and gentle and thoughtful!” “Not so fast,”
cautioned Mom. “You’ve only seen him a few times. Wait and see how he acts in a situation
in which things don’t go his way.” Sophie is talking about Bert’s ______________ whereas
Mom is concerned with Bert’s ______________.
A introversion; extraversion C central traits; secondary traits
B secondary traits; central traits D extraversion; introversion
C
In her personal ads, Brittney described herself as “always outgoing and energetic, and loves
parties, concerts, or other situations where there are lots of people.” According to Allport’s
trait theory of personality, the adjectives “outgoing” and “energetic” represent her
______________ traits; and her love of situations where there are lots of other people
represents a(n) ______________ trait.
A cardinal; ordinal C central; secondary
B secondary; central D ordinal; cardinal
C
Complete the following personal ad: Seeking an outgoing individual who enjoys social
activities. Must also be adventurous and willing to try anything. In other words, must be
high in
A neuroticism and extraversion. C extraversion and openness.
B openness and conscientiousness. D conscientiousness and neuroticism.
C
According to Freud, the ego, which evolves from the id and creates ways to get what one
wants in a world full of rules, operates on the ______________ principle.
A morality C pleasure
B compromise D reality
D
Which theory describes personality using the dimensions of introversion-extraversion and
emotionality-stability?
A Mischel’s cognitive/affective theory C Rotter’s expectancy theory
B The big-five model D Eysenck’s biological trait theory
D
In a scientific study, researchers assessed the personalities of two children who were
adopted at an early age. The researchers then compared the children’s personalities to those
of their biological and adoptive parents. Based on the studies described in the text, the
children’s personalities will be most similar to the personalities of their
A classmates. C biological parents.
B favorite celebrities. D adoptive parents.
C
A weakness of the trait approach to personality is that it
A overemphasizes the role of unconscious processes on behavior.
B overemphasizes the role of situational factors on behavior.
C describes behavior, but does not explain it.
D consists of concepts too vague to be tested empirically.
C
Which of the following is not a criticism of the trait approach to personality?
A Trait theories overemphasize the role of situational factors on behavior.
B Trait theories describe behavior, but do not explain it.
C The approach does not explain how traits relate to the thoughts and feelings associated
with behaviors.
D The approach does not explain how traits combine to form a complex and dynamic
individual.
A
Which of the following is not a basic assumption of the social-cognitive approach?
A Learned patterns of thought guide our behavior.
B Much of personality is learned through observing and interacting with others.
C All behavior, even if it looks bizarre, is meaningful to the person displaying it.
D Behavior is learned, in part, through classical and operant conditioning.
C
A social-cognitive theorist has determined that Xiao-Ping is an internal. Today, she received
a $10,000 raise from her boss. She will most likely believe that she got the raise because
A it is fate. C her boss is a generous person.
B she is a hard worker. D she was lucky today.
B
Joaquin is an internal, according to social-cognitive theory. Suppose that Joaquin performed
poorly in volleyball. Which of the following would best describe his reaction to losing?
A “Luck wasn’t on my side today.” C “I didn’t practice enough last week.”
B “My teammates needed to play harder.” D “The other team was too good.”
C
Jack has been classified as an internal, according to social-cognitive theory. How is Jack
likely to explain why he didn’t get the job for which he interviewed?
A Everything went according to God’s plan.
B He hadn’t prepared well for the interview.
C The interviewer was biased against him.
D They preferred a woman for the job.
B
Carlita expects her psychology class to be fun. As a result, she tells funny stories in class,
and this makes all the other students laugh. This laughter reinforces her for telling jokes, so
that she tells even more jokes. In turn, this adds to her perception that her psychology class
is fun. According to Bandura’s theory, this is an example of
A an actualizing tendency. C interdependent self-systems.
B a growth orientation. D reciprocal determinism.
D
Susan is angry with her mother for opening her mail without her permission. Susan shouts at
her mother and slams the door to her room. Susan’s mother and father respond by getting
angry at Susan for being hostile and disrespectful, which just makes Susan feel more angry.
Susan evaluates her parents’ reactions and concludes that her parents are “out to get her”
and don’t really want her to be happy. According to Bandura’s theory, Susan’s angry
behavior is the result of
A neuroticism. C a deficiency orientation.
B displacement. D reciprocal determinism.
D
According to Freud, id functions are ______________ , while superego functions are
______________.
A based on the pleasure principle; based on the reality principle C rational; irrational
B innate; learned D sexual; aggressive
B
Violet tends to see the world through rose-colored glasses. She thinks most people are
basically good at heart, so she tries to be nice to everyone. According to Bandura’s theory of
reciprocal determinism, other people are likely to treat Violet
A nicely. C suspiciously.
B cynically. D as naive.
A
Which of the following is not a criticism of the social-cognitive approach to psychology?
A The theories leave no role for unconscious thoughts and feelings in determining
behavior.
B Theorists have been unable to identify what it is about specific situations that bring out
certain behaviors.
C The approach cannot really capture the complexities and uniqueness that is inherent in
human personality.
D The theories underestimate the role of learning in personality development.
D
Barbara and Anna saw a person in the park dancing naked, painted all over like a lava lamp.
Because Barbara subscribes to the ____________ theory of personality, she believes that the
dancer’s behavior must be meaningful to him. Anna, however, subscribes to the
____________ theory of personality, and she believes that some aspect of the dancer’s
personality is failing to control his impulses.
A social-cognitive; humanistic C psychodynamic; humanistic
B trait; psychodynamic D humanistic; psychodynamic
D
Dr. Bialeschki believes that each person has an innate tendency toward growth and selffulfillment.
He believes that dysfunctions in personality result from distorted perceptions of
reality. Dr. Bialeschki takes a ____________ approach to personality.
A humanistic C trait
B psychodynamic D social-cognitive
A
Uncle Barry made a visit to the Keatons. Alex thought Uncle Barry was a bleeding-heart,
liberal moron. Mallory thought he was cute and wore sweaters well. A humanistic theorist
would account for this discrepancy by examining
A the instincts of Alex (male disposition) and Mallory (female disposition).
B the rewards that Alex and Mallory received in their interactions with Uncle Barry.
C the personality traits of both Mallory and Alex.
D Alex’s and Mallory’s individual perceptions of their uncle.
D
Miss Turner is a kindergarten teacher who tries to encourage her students to get along. She
often tells them to try to see things from the other person’s point of view. This advice is
most consistent with the ______________ approach to personality.
A trait C behavioral
B humanistic D psychodynamic
B
One of the most important concepts in humanistic personality theories is
A factor analysis. C learned behavior.
B object relations. D self-actualization.
D
Which of the following individuals is most likely to be self-actualized, according to the
humanistic approach to personality?
A Betty, who has a high need for positive regard
B Anne, who has internalized many conditions of worth
C Corey, who is controlled by a deficiency orientation
D Dori, who always displays congruent behaviors
D