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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Parts of neruons


Cell body



Receives messages from other neurons

Cell body

contains nucleus

regular cell metabolism


conduct electrical impulse away from cell body to other neurons, muscles, and glands

Basics of Neuron Firing

Sends incoming signals to dendrites

Reach Neuron's threshold

Neurons sends electrochemical signal down the Axon.

Signal reaches terminal buttons

Terminal buttons emit Neurotransmitters int he synapses

Resting Potential

When a nerve cell is not firing

Polarized- between inside and outside voltages

about -70 millivolt

What happens when impulse start?

Resting potential drops until potential reaches threshold (-55 millivolts)

Action Potential

Potential collapses and axon interior briefly becomes positive relative to the outside

Sodium ions rush in

Lasts about 1 millisecond before resting stage kicks in

Neuron Transmission

AP rule

shoots down axon

Vesicles open into the synapse

Vesicles release neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitter bind to dendrites of the next neuron

Next neuron becomes more/less likely to fire

Graded Potential vs.Action Potential

Changes in membrane potential that vary in size as opposed to Action Potential- all or nothing

Graded potentials add up until an action potential occurs in the post -synaptic membrane

Action Potential

1.Signals to the Dendrites

2.Reach the neuron's threshold

3.Neuron emits an electrochemical signal down the axon

4.Signal reaches terminal button

5.Terminal button release neurotransmitters into the synapse

6.Other neurons receive the input

3 Divisions of the Brain




Hindbrain parts

Medulla Oblaganta

Medulla Oblaganta

Part of Hindbrain

control heartbeats


Part of Hindbrain

play a role in arousal and sleep

Reticular Formation

Part of Hindbrain

arousal sleep attention


Part of Hindbrain

Responsible for balance and coordiantion


Relay point for vision and pain registration


Responsible for limbic system

Cerebral cortex

4 Lobes of Cerebral Cortex

Front Lobe-front

Parietal Lobe-top side

Temporal Lobe-lower side

Occipital lobe-back side

Occipital Lobe

Receives input from optic nerve

Primary visual cortex

Outputs to parietal and temporal lobe

Temporal Lobe

Primary auditory cortex

Input auditory and visual pattern

Recognize Speech,Face,Word,

Form Memory

Parietal Lobe

Input from Multiple Senses

Outputs to frontal Lobe

Responsible for:

eye-hand coordination

eye movements


Frontal Lobe

Primary Motor Cortex

No direct sensory input

Responsible for planning

Contains Broca's area for language expression

Where does occipital lobe receive info?

Which cotex?

Receive info from the eyes

Primary visual cortex

Where does the temporal lobe receive info?

Which cortex?

Receives info from the ears

Auditory cortex

Where does the parietal lobe receive info?

Which cortex?

Receives info from the body

Somatosensory cortex

Where is the motor cortex located?

It is a strip located between the frontal and parietal lobe.

Function of Language areas

produce and comprehend speech

Function of Broca's area

fluent language expression

Function of Wernickes Area

language reception/comprehension

Association and Language Areas

Communicate with both sensory and motor areas.

House brain's higher mental processes.

Frontal Lobe Function

Thinking, Planning, Organizing, Problem Solving, Emotions, Behavior, Personality

Motor Cortex Function

Responsible for movement

Sensory Cortex Function

Responsible for sensation

Parietal Lobe Function


Making sense f the world

Occipital Lobe Function


Cerebellum Function


Spinal Cord Function

Carry messages

Temporal Lobe Function

Memory, understanding, and language

Cerebral Cortex Hemisphere

Left and Right sides are seperate

Corpus Callosum- pathway between 2 hemispheres

Hemispheric Specialization

Left hemisphere-Verbal functioning

Right hemisphere-non-verbal functioning(music and math)

Never 100%

Involves Contralateral Control

What is contralateral control?

Sensory data crosses over corpus callosum pathway

Left visual cortex to right visual cortex, vice-versa


A brain injury that messes with your perception of the world


A brain injury that messes with voluntary actions


A brain injury that messes with language

Broca's Aphasia- Left frontal lobe

Wernicke's Aphasia- Left hemisphere region.

Controlateral Motor Control

Motor area controls movement

Right hemisphere controls left body side

Left hemisphere controls right body side

Motor nerves cross sides in spinal cord