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47 Cards in this Set

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Parts of neruons

Dendrite


Cell body


Axon

Dendrite

Receives messages from other neurons

Cell body

contains nucleus


regular cell metabolism

Axon

conduct electrical impulse away from cell body to other neurons, muscles, and glands





Basics of Neuron Firing

Sends incoming signals to dendrites


Reach Neuron's threshold


Neurons sends electrochemical signal down the Axon.


Signal reaches terminal buttons


Terminal buttons emit Neurotransmitters int he synapses

Resting Potential

When a nerve cell is not firing




Polarized- between inside and outside voltages




about -70 millivolt

What happens when impulse start?

Resting potential drops until potential reaches threshold (-55 millivolts)

Action Potential

Potential collapses and axon interior briefly becomes positive relative to the outside




Sodium ions rush in




Lasts about 1 millisecond before resting stage kicks in

Neuron Transmission

AP rule




shoots down axon


Vesicles open into the synapse


Vesicles release neurotransmitter


Neurotransmitter bind to dendrites of the next neuron


Next neuron becomes more/less likely to fire

Graded Potential vs.Action Potential

Changes in membrane potential that vary in size as opposed to Action Potential- all or nothing




Graded potentials add up until an action potential occurs in the post -synaptic membrane

Action Potential

1.Signals to the Dendrites


2.Reach the neuron's threshold


3.Neuron emits an electrochemical signal down the axon


4.Signal reaches terminal button


5.Terminal button release neurotransmitters into the synapse


6.Other neurons receive the input

3 Divisions of the Brain

Forebrain


Midbrain


Hindbrain

Hindbrain parts

Medulla Oblaganta

Medulla Oblaganta

Part of Hindbrain




control heartbeats

Pons

Part of Hindbrain


play a role in arousal and sleep

Reticular Formation

Part of Hindbrain


arousal sleep attention

Cerbellum

Part of Hindbrain




Responsible for balance and coordiantion

Midbrain

Relay point for vision and pain registration

Forebrain

Responsible for limbic system




Cerebral cortex



4 Lobes of Cerebral Cortex

Front Lobe-front


Parietal Lobe-top side


Temporal Lobe-lower side


Occipital lobe-back side

Occipital Lobe

Receives input from optic nerve


Primary visual cortex


Outputs to parietal and temporal lobe

Temporal Lobe

Primary auditory cortex


Input auditory and visual pattern


Recognize Speech,Face,Word,


Form Memory



Parietal Lobe

Input from Multiple Senses


Outputs to frontal Lobe


Responsible for:


eye-hand coordination


eye movements


attention

Frontal Lobe

Primary Motor Cortex


No direct sensory input


Responsible for planning


Contains Broca's area for language expression



Where does occipital lobe receive info?


Which cotex?

Receive info from the eyes


Primary visual cortex

Where does the temporal lobe receive info?


Which cortex?

Receives info from the ears


Auditory cortex

Where does the parietal lobe receive info?


Which cortex?

Receives info from the body


Somatosensory cortex

Where is the motor cortex located?

It is a strip located between the frontal and parietal lobe.

Function of Language areas

produce and comprehend speech

Function of Broca's area

fluent language expression

Function of Wernickes Area

language reception/comprehension

Association and Language Areas

Communicate with both sensory and motor areas.


House brain's higher mental processes.

Frontal Lobe Function

Thinking, Planning, Organizing, Problem Solving, Emotions, Behavior, Personality

Motor Cortex Function

Responsible for movement

Sensory Cortex Function

Responsible for sensation

Parietal Lobe Function

Perception


Making sense f the world

Occipital Lobe Function

Vision

Cerebellum Function

Balance

Spinal Cord Function

Carry messages

Temporal Lobe Function

Memory, understanding, and language

Cerebral Cortex Hemisphere

Left and Right sides are seperate


Corpus Callosum- pathway between 2 hemispheres

Hemispheric Specialization

Left hemisphere-Verbal functioning


Right hemisphere-non-verbal functioning(music and math)




Never 100%




Involves Contralateral Control

What is contralateral control?

Sensory data crosses over corpus callosum pathway


Left visual cortex to right visual cortex, vice-versa

Agnosia

A brain injury that messes with your perception of the world

Apraxia

A brain injury that messes with voluntary actions

Aphasia

A brain injury that messes with language




Broca's Aphasia- Left frontal lobe


Wernicke's Aphasia- Left hemisphere region.

Controlateral Motor Control

Motor area controls movement


Right hemisphere controls left body side


Left hemisphere controls right body side


Motor nerves cross sides in spinal cord