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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
thinking about thinking
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
People will find evidence that bear on the idea---> science
Do not consider true or false until they use rational procedures
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
People will accept an idea as true unless there is a reason slapping them in the face to reject it as false---> gossip
Evidence not actively sought out
The fit between the person, the tool and the task
Postural stress
work-related musculoskeletal disorder (lower back pains etc..)
Healthy sitting position
Guerilla ergonomics
Inventions of ways to fix without having to buy anything
If a situation is framed in gains
people are risk averse
If situation is framed in losses
people are risk seeking
Risk averse
sure gain
Risk seeking
Hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)
Critical Thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
Operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
Behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes.
Identical Twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
Fraternal Twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
a person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
Molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
Evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
Natural Selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-- but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions.
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
Mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
Functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
Availability heuristic
stimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
Belief bias
the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
Belief preservation
clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.
Social facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
Perform better in front of an audience (on things you are already good at)
Social Loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
Ex: Tug of war example from book
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Ex: Klu Klux Klan example from book
Group polarization
the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
Misconceptions about Darwins Theory
1)There is no evidence to support theory
2) Theory states that humans descended from monkeys
3)Theory cannot explain why humans are such social animals
4)Theory conflicts with the Biblical story of creation
Darwins Theory
Organisms must compete for...
darwin theory resources
Darwin theory
Variation among organisms with respect to...
darwin theory
...physical characteristics and behavior
Darwin theory
darwin theory
some variations are more adaptive than others
What darwin meant by adaptive:
darwin meant these things by______
enviromental challenges(compete for limited resources)
fitness of organism
How did Darwin suggest fitness be operationally defined?
how darwin believed_____should be operationally defined:
Reproductive success
Natural Selection
1)the mechanism by which evolution occurs
2)adaptive characteristics can be passed on to offspring
3)adaptive to enviroment
Enviroment determines...
_____determines fitness requirements
changes in enviroment change...
______change fitness requirements
How do genes affect behavior?
____affect behavior by directing the production of proteins
Proteins of interest...
_____of interest:
1) Brain
2) Sensory systems
3) Motor system (muscle, limbs, etc..)
Variations can be produced by...
_____are produced by
1) shuffling of genes during reproduction (crossover)