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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The capacity to preserve and recover information
The processes that determine and control how memories are formed
The processes that determine and control how memories are stored and kept over time.
The processes that determine and control how memories are recovered and translated into performance.
An exact replica of an environmental message which usually lasts for a second or less.
Sensory Memory
A limited capacity system that we use to hold information, after it has been analyzed, for periods lasting less than a minute or two.
Short-term memory
The system that produces and stores visual sensory memories.
Iconic Memory
The system that produces and stores auditory sensory memories
Echoic Memory
A strategic process that helps to maintain short-term memories indefinitely through the use of internal repetition
The number of items that can be recalled from short-term memory in their proper presentation order on half of the tested memory trials.
Memory Span
A short-term memory strategy that involves rearranging incoming information into meaningful or familiar patterns.
The system used to maintain information for extended periods of time.
Long-term memory
A memory for a particular event, or episode, that happened to you personally, such as remembering what you ate for breakfast this morning or where you went on vacation last year
Episodic Memory
Knowledge about the world, stored as facts that make little or no reference to one’s personal experiences.
Semantic Memory
Knowledge about how to do things, such as riding a bike or swinging a golf club.
Procedural Memory
An encoding process that involves the formation of connections between to-be-remembered input and other information in memory.
A term used to refer to how unique or different a memory record is from other things in memory. Memory records with this characteristic tend to be recalled well.
Rich memory records of the circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events.
Flashbulb Memory
The processes used to construct an internal visual image.
Visual Imagery
Spacing the repetitions of to-be-remembered information over time.
Distributed Practice
The better memory of items near the beginning of a memorized list.
Primary Effect
The better memory of items near the end of a memorized list.
Recency Effect
Special mental tricks that help people improve later memory. Most of these require the use of visual imagery.
Mnemomic Devices
A mnemonic device in which you choose some pathway, such as moving through the rooms in your house, and then from visual images of the to-be-remembered items sitting in locations along the pathway
Method of Loki
A mnemonic device in which you form visual images connecting to-be-remembered items with retrieval cues.
Peg-word method
A testing condition in which a person is asked to remember information without explicit retrieval cues.
Free recall
A testing condition in which subjects are given an explicit retrieval cue to help them remember.
Cued Recall
The idea that the likelihood of correct retrieval is increased if a person uses the same kind of mental processes during testing that he or she used during encoding.
Transfer Appropriate Processing
Remembering that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness or willful intent.
Implicit Memory
Conscious, willful remembering.
Explicit Memory
An organized knowledge structure in long-term memory.
The loss in accessibility of previously stored material.
The proposal that memories are forgotten or lost spontaneously with the passage of time.
A process in which the formation of new memories hurts the recovery of old memories.
Retroactive Interference
A process in which old memories interfere with the establishment and recovery of new memories.
Proactive Interference
A defense mechanism that individuals use, unknowingly, to push threatening thoughts, memories, and feelings out of conscious awareness
Forgetting that is caused by physical problems in the brain, such as those induced by injury or disease.
Memory loss for events that happened prior to the point of brain injury.
Retrograde Amnesia
Memory loss for events that happens after the point of physical injury. H.M. is an example of this.
Anterograde Amnesia