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109 Cards in this Set

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Sensation
The biological process of receriving information from the environment.
The big 5 (vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste)
Perception
The psychological process of organizing sensory information to make it meaningful.
MAKES SENSE OF YOUR SENSES!
Absolute Threshold
The minimim amount of stimuli needed to detect a stimulus
Subliminal Messages
The registration of sensory input without concious awareness
(something presented below the absolute threshold)
-we do not change our behaviour because of it
Difference Threshold/Just Noticeable Difference
The amoung that something must be changed for the difference to be noticeable
(the smallest perceivable difference)
Sensory Adaptation
The gradual loss of attention or reaction to unneeded or unwanted sensory information
-"getting used to it"
-example: loud music
Transduction
Process by which a sense organ changes physical energy into electrical signals that become neural impulses that are sent to the brain
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Gamma rays; Xrays; Ultraviolet; Visible (ROYGBIV); Infrared; Microwaves; Radiowaves
White Light
Light as it originates from the sun or a bulb before it is broken into different frequencies
Light Waves
The waves that carry light to our eyes
Frequency/Wavelength/Color
The higher the frequency and wavelength, the warmer the color (and vice versa)
Amplitude/Brightness
The square of amplitude is proportional to the brightness of the wave
Cornea
Clear outer covering of the eye, behind which is fluid
-protects the eye
-bends light
Pupil
Opening in the eye, looks black, different emotions change size (disgust=small; pleasure=big), lets in light, dark/light dialates (dark=big; light=small)
Iris
Covered circular muscle that opens and closes, forming larger and smaller circles to control the amount of light getting into the eye (color part)
Lens
Part of the eye that focuses an image on the retina; flips image
Retina
Back of the eye which contains millions of light recpetors
Rods
NIGHTVISION; sees black and white only
Cones
Visual receptor that responds during daylight
Receptor Cells
The cells that receive the light waves from an object and send them to the correct place
vision...
Afterimage
The image remains after stimulation of the retina has ended; cones not used fire to bring the visual system back in balance
Fovea
Has many cones
Blindspot
Portion of the retina through which the optic nerve exits and where there are no light receptors
Optic Nerve
Where the nerve cells leave the eye
Color Blindness
Inability ro perceive an object as the same color, such as red and green
Monochromat
Have no color; see in black and white
Dichromat
Simply have trouble distinguishing between two colors
Nearsighted
When the image does not quote reach the fovea
Farsighted
When the image reaches past the fovea
Occipital Lobe
Division of the cerebral cortex that interprets visual info
Audition
The sense of hearing
Sound Waves
The stimulus of hearing
Frequency/Wavelength/Pitch
How how or low a sound is
Amplitude/Loudness/Decibels
A measure of how loud a sound is (intensity)
Outer Ear
Picks up sounds
-made up of the Pinna, Auditory Canal, and Eardrum
Pinna
A sound-collecting cone that protrudes off the head
Auditory Canal
Sound collected by the pinna is funnelled to the ear drum through this canal
Eardrum
A piece of skin streched over the entrance to the ear; vibrates to sound
Middle Ear
Amplifies the sound
Ossicles
Smallest bones in the human body; vibrate and help pass vibrations along
Inner Ear
Transducts the sound
-Made up of the cochlea, hair cells, auditory nerve, and semicircular canals
Cochlea
Coil-filled tube filled with cilia that receives sound
Hair Cells
The hairlike extensions on cells that do the transduction
Auditory Nerve
Bundle of nerves carrying sound to the brain
Semicircular Canals
Responsible for equilibrium; filled with fluid
Temporal Lobe
The lobe that registers hearing
Conductive Deafness
Problems with mechanical structure that conducts sound waves to cochlea
Neural Deafness
Damage to cochlea's hair cell receptors of their associated nerves
Four Taste Receptors
-Bitter
-Sour
-Sweer
-Salty
Supertasters
Individuals who can experience taste more intensely
Olfaction
The sense of smell
Olfactory Cells
While we have 347 functional odor receptor genes, each olfactory receptor neuron in the nose expresses only one functional odor receptor, and they function like key-lock system; if an odor is in the air and it fits into a "lock," the neuron will respond
Olfactory Bulb
A structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. In mans, the olfactory bulb is on the inferior side of the brain
Flavor
The sensory impression of a food or other substance, and is determined mainly by the chemical senses of taste and smell
Olfactory Cortex
In the brain, the olfactory bulb, the piriform cortext, the amygdala, and the entorhinal cortex are involved in the olfaction cortex
Touch
Cutaneous system
Cutaneous Receptors
Nerve receptors on the skin that respond to pressure, temperature, or pain
Sensory Strip
Band running down the side of the parietal lobe that registers and provides all sensation (touch only)
Parietal Lobe
Division of the cerebral cortex that contains the sensory strip
Phantom Limb
For example, when a leg gets amputated, the amputee feels as though the leg is still attached
Gestalt laws of Perceptual Organization
The laws that specify how our brains organize individual pieces into a complete perception
"The whole is difference from the sum of its parts"
Gestalt laws of Perceptual Organization - Figure Ground
In organizing stimuli, we tend to automatically distinguish a figure from the background
Gestalt laws of Perceptual Organization - Closure
In organizing stimuli, we tend to fill in the missing parts of a figure and see it as complete (fill in the gaps)
Gestalt laws of Perceptual Organization - Similarity
In organizing stimuli, we group like things together (shape, size, color)
Gestalt laws of Perceptual Organization - Proximity
In organizing stimuli, we group things together that are near one another (geographically)
Depth Perception
Ability to see objects in 3D, judge distance, and see objects "out there" in space
Visual Cliff
If it appears that there is an end (or cliff) to something, then your brain tells you to stop walking otherwise you will fall off the cliff
baby and table
Binocular Depth Cues
Ability to perceive depth cues from both eyes (convergence and retinal disparity)
Convergence
Acts like a rangefinder to tell us how far away an object is; as an object gets nearer, our eyes swivel inward
Retinal Disparity
"Camera one, camera two"
Brain receives two slightly different pictures of the same thing
Monocular Depth Cues
Ability to perceive depth cues from only one eye (interposition, relative size, linear perspective, and texture gradient)
Interposition
Allows us to perceive depth due to the overlapping of objects
Relative Size
When objects are all the same size, the largest one appears to be the closest
Linear Perspective
Parallel lines converge in the distance
Texture Gradient
The more detailed an object appears, the closer it is perceived
Perceptual Constancies
The perceiving of objects is unchanging
Size Constancy
Our perception of something different distances away does not change, even though the image on the retina changes
Color Constancy
Our perception of something different colors does not change, even though the image on the retina changes
Lightness/Brightness Constancy
Our perception of something with different brightnes levels does not change, even though the image on the retina changes
Shape Constancy
Our perception of something of different shapes does not change, even though the image on the retina changes
Space Constancy
Perceiving either ourself or the outside as moving when it actually isn't
-examples: driving in a car, roller coaster
Perceptual Set
A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
-mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not the other
Illusions
Misperceptions or an error in perception
-occurs when our constancies or gestalt laws fail us
Retinal Disparity
"Camera one, camera two"
Brain receives two slightly different pictures of the same thing
Monocular Depth Cues
Ability to perceive depth cues from only one eye (interposition, relative size, linear perspective, and texture gradient)
Interposition
Allows us to perceive depth due to the overlapping of objects
Relative Size
When objects are all the same size, the largest one appears to be the closest
Linear Perspective
Parallel lines converge in the distance
Texture Gradient
The more detailed an object appears, the closer it is perceived
Perceptual Constancies
The perceiving of objects is unchanging
Size Constancy
Our perception of something different distances away does not change, even though the image on the retina changes
Color Constancy
Our perception of something different colors does not change, even though the image on the retina changes
Lightness/Brightness Constancy
Our perception of something with different brightnes levels does not change, even though the image on the retina changes
Shape Constancy
Our perception of something of different shapes does not change, even though the image on the retina changes
Space Constancy
Perceiving either ourself or the outside as moving when it actually isn't
-examples: driving in a car, roller coaster
Perceptual Set
A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
-mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not the other
Illusions
Misperceptions or an error in perception
-occurs when our constancies or gestalt laws fail us
Impossible Figures
???
Poggendorff Illusion
involves the brain's perception of the interaction between diagonal lines and horizontal and vertical edges
Muller Lyer Illusion
an optical illusion consisting of nothing more than an arrow. When viewers are asked to place a mark on the figure at the mid-point, they invariably place it more towards the "tail" end. Another variation consists of two arrow-like figures, one with both ends pointing in, and the other with both ends pointing out. When asked to judge the lengths of the two lines, which are equal, viewers will typically claim that the inward pointing pair is longer
Ponzo Illusion
The upper line looks longer because we interpret the converging sides according to linear perspective as parallel lines receding into the distance
Zollner Illusion
In this figure the black lines seem to be unparallel, but in reality they are parallel. The shorter lines are on an angle to the longer lines. This angle helps to create the impression that one end of the longer lines is nearer to us than the other end
Hermann Grid
when looking at a grid of black squares on a white (or light-colored) background, one will have the impression that there are "ghostlike" grey blobs at the intersections of the white lines. The grey blobs disappear when looking directly at an intersection.
Ames Room
An Ames room is constructed so that from the front it appears to be an ordinary cubic-shaped room, with a back wall and two side walls perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the horizontally level floor and ceiling. However, this is a trick of perspective and the true shape of the room is trapezoidal: the walls are slanted and the ceiling and floor are at an incline, and the right corner is much closer to the front-positioned observer than the left corner (or vice versa).

As a result of the optical illusion, a person standing in one corner appears to the observer to be a giant while a person standing in the other corner appears to be a dwarf. The illusion is convincing enough that a person walking back and forth from the left corner to the right corner actually appears to be growing or shrinking.
Extra Sensory Perception
the ability to acquire information by means other than the known senses of taste, sight, touch, smell, hearing, balance and proprioception. The term implies sources of information unknown to science. Extra-sensory perception is also sometimes referred to as a sixth sense
Precognition
a form of extra-sensory perception. Believers in precognition say it allows a "percipient" to perceive information about future places or events before they happen
Telepathy
the communication of information from one mind to another by means other than the known perceptual senses
Clairvoyence
a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person acquires psychic knowledge primarily by visual means. A clairvoyant may perceive distant objects, persons, or events, including viewing targets hidden behind opaque objects
Psychokinesis
he influence of mind upon matter, as the use of mental 'power' to move or distort an object