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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
alternate-form reliability
the relationship between scores achieved by people when they complete two versions of a test that are judged to be equivalent
behavioral assessment
A sample of ongoing cognitions, feelings, and overt behavior in their situational context. Compare projective test and personality inventory.
behavioral observation
A form of behavioral assessment that entails careful observation of a person's overt behavior in a particular situation
BOLD (blood oxygenation level depedent)
The signal detected by functional MRI studies of the brain; measures blood flow and thus neural activity in particular regions.
categorical classification
An approach to assessment in which a person is or is not a member of a discrete grouping. Compare dimensional classification.
clinical interview
General term for conversation between a clinician and a patient that is aimed at determining diagnosis, history, causes for problems, and possible treatment options.
The co-occurrence of two disorders, as when a person is both depressed and alcoholic.
concurrent validity
The extent to which previously undiscovered features are found among pateints with the same diagnosis (applied to psychiatric diagnosis)
construct validity
The extent to which scores or ratings on an assessment instrument relate to other variables or behaviors according to some theory of hypothesis.
content validity
The extent to which a measure adequately samples the domain of interest (applied to psychological and psychiatric measures)
criterion validity
The extent to which a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure (the criterion) (applied to psychological and psychiatric measures)
CT or CAT scan
Refers to computerized axial tomography, a method of diagnosis in which xrays are taken from different angles and then analyzed by computer to produce a representation of the part of the body in cross section.
DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association
dimensional diagnostic systems
An approach to assessment in which a person is placed on a continuum.
ecological momentary assessment (EMA)
Form of self observation involving collection of data in real time (e.g. diaries) regarding thoughts, moods, and stressors.
electrocardiogram (EKG)
A recording of the electrical activity of the heart, made with an electrocardiograph.
electrodermal responding
A recording of the minute electrical activity of the sweat glands on the skin, allowing inference of an emotional state.
electroencephalogram (EEG)
A graphic recording of electrical activity of the brain, usually of the cerebral cortex, but sometimes in lower areas.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
Modification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows researchers to take pictures of the brain so quickly that metabolic changes can be measured, resulting in a picture of the brain at work rather than of its structure alone.
intelligence test
A standardized means of assessing a person's current mental ability, for example, the Stanford-Binet test of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
internal consistency reliability
The degree to which different items of an assessment are related to one another.
interrater reliability
The relationship between the judgments that at least two raters make indepedently about a phenomenon.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
A technique for measuring the structure (or, in the case of functional magnetic resonance imaging, the activity) of the living brain. The person is placed inside a large circular magnet that causes hydrogen atoms to move; the return of the atoms to their original positions when the current to the magnet is turned off is translated by a computer into pictures of brain tissue.
A chemical breakdown product of an endogenous molecule, such as a neurotransmitter, or of an exogenous drug; used to gauge current or recent level of its precursor.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A lengthy personal inventory that identifies individuals with states such as anxiety, depression, masculinity-femininity, and paranoia, through their true-false replies to group statements.
multiaxial classification system
Classification having several dimensions, all of which are employed in categorizing; DSM-IV-TR is an example.
A physician who specializes in medical diseases that affect the nervous system, such as muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, or Alzheimer's disease.
neuropsychological tests
Psychological tests, such as the Luria-Nebraska, that can detect impairment in different parts of the brain.
A psychologist who studies how brain dysfunction affects cognition, emotion, and behavior.
personality inventory
A self-report questionnaire comprised of statements assessing habitual behavioral and affective tendencies.
PET scan
Computer-generated picture of the living brain, created by analysis of emissions from radioactive isotopes injected into the bloodstream.
predictive validity
The extent to which predictions can be made about the future behavior of patients with the same diagnosis (applied to psychiatric diagnosis)
projective hypothesis
The notion that standard but highly unstructured stimuli, as found in the Rorschach assessment's serious of inkblots, are necessary to bypass defenses in order to reveal unconscious motives and conflicts.
projective test
A psychological assessment devide, such as the Rorschach series of inkblots, employing a set of standard but vague stimuli, on the assumption that unstructured material will allow conscious motivations and fears to be uncovered.
psychological tests
Standardized procedures designed to measure performance on a particular task or to assess personality.
The discipline concerned with the bodily changes that accompany psychological events.
The phenomenon wherein behavior changes because it is being observed.
The extent to which a test, measurement, or classification system produces the same scientific observation each time it is applied.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective test in which the examinee is instructed to interpret a series of 10 inkblots reproduced on cards.
In behavioral assessment, a procedure whereby the individual observes and reports certain aspects of his/her own behavior, thoughts, or emotions.
The process of constructing a normed assessment procedure that meets the various psychometric criteria for reliability and validity.
State of an organism subjected to a stressor; can take the form of increased autonomic activity and in the long term can cause breakdown of an organ or development of a mental disorder.
structured interview
An interview in which the questions are set out in a prescribed fashion for the interviewer; assists profesionals in making diagnostic decisions based on standardized criteria
test-retest reliability
The relationship between the scores that a person achieves when he/she takes the same test twice
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test consisting of black-and-white pictures, each depicting a potentially emotion-laden situation, about each of which the examinee is instructed to make up a story.
In research, includes internal, the extent to which results can be confidently attributed to the manipulation of the indepedent variable, and external, the extent to which results may be generalized to other populations and settings.