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47 Cards in this Set

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anecdotal evidence
personal stories about specific incidents and experiences.
case study
in depth investigation of a single subject
confounding of variables
occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
control group
consists of similar subjects similar to that of the experimental group. however, they do not receive the special treatment given tot he experimental group
correlation
exists when 2 variables are related to each other. (i.e. class attendance and course grades)
correlation coefficient
the numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables. the closer the number is to 1 or -1 the higher the degree of relationship.
empiricism
the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
data collection technique
procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
dependent variable
in an experiment, the variable which is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable.
descriptive statistics
statistics used to organize and summarize data.
central tendency
way of summarizing numerical data. measured in median, mean, and mode.
double blind procedure
research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups.
experiment
research method in which the experimenter manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions while monitoring the effects on a second variable as a result. allows cause-effect conclusions
experimental group
subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard tot he independent variable
experimenter bias
a phenomenon that occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained.
extraneous variables
any variables besides the independent variable which seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study.
hypothesis
tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
independent variable
a condition or event which an experimenter varies to see its impact on another variable
inferential statistics
statistics used to interpret data and draw conclusions
journal
periodical which publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry.
mean
the arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
median
score falling exactly in center of a distribution of scores
mode
score occurring most frequently in a distribution
naturalistic observation
a descriptive research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behavior without directly intervening with the subjects
operational definition
definition which describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable. (what will be done to ensure there are no extraneous variables effecting the dependent variable)
participants
persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed during a study
placebo effects
the fact that subjects' expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment.
population
larger collection of people/animals from which a sample is drawn and which researchers want to generalize about.
random assignment
constitution o fgroups in a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition
replication
repetition of a study to see whether results are duplicated
research methods
differing approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies
response set
a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions
sample
collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
sampling bias
problem which occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn.
social desirability bias
a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself
standard deviation
index of the amount of variability in a set of data
statistical significance
condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low.
statistics
use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data.
subjects
persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study.
survey
descriptive research method in which the researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of subjects' behavior.
theory
a system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations
variability
the extent to which the scores in a data set tend to vary from each other and from the mean.
variables
any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
neal miller
prominent psychologist. favored animal research. reasoning was that animal cruelty is very rare and is a small price to pay to save human lives. also 20 million dogs and cats already experience cruelty from other sources per year. a mere 1/10,000th from psychology.
stanley schachter
psychologist curious about the need for affiliation in times of anxiety. his research method was the experiment. independent variable was subject's anxiety level. the dependent variable was the participants desire to affiliate with others.
Robert Rosenthal
psychologist who showed that experimenter bias may lead researchers to unintentionally influence the behavior of their subjects. in his experiment he manipulated students perrception of succesful people in photos by manipulating their expectations.
Robert Rosenthal
psychologist who showed that experimenter bias may lead researchers to unintentionally influence the behavior of their subjects. in his experiment he manipulated students perrception of succesful people in photos by manipulating their expectations.