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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Neuron
Receive and transmit information (3 types)
Censory Neurons
Receive Information
Motor Neurons
Send out information
Interneurons
Allow Neurons to communicate with themselves
Glial Cells
Provide Structural support for neurons
Dendrites
receive information from other neurons and sensory information (neuron)
Nucleus
provides energy for the neuron (neuron)
Cell body
contains nucleus (neuron)
Axon
carries neuron's messages to other body areas. (neuron)
Node of Ranvier
a gap in the myelin sheath (neuron)
Myelin Sheath
increases neuron communication speed (neuron)
Polarization/resting potential
-Resting state
-typical state
-Axon's interior is negatively charged with Potassium Ions
outside is positively charged with sodium ions
Depolarized/Action Potential
if sufficiently stimulated by other neurons, channels open at each segment. sodium ions enter, potassium ions leave. electrical charge changes briefly from negative to positive
All-or-none law
either the neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs OR it is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does NOT occur
two conditions make neuron communicate faster?
-myelin sheath
-thicker axon
synapse
point of communication between two neurons
Neurotransmitter
chemical messengers in the neuron that travel between neurons through the synapse
Locks and Keys
Neurotransmitter molecules have specific shapes
receptor molecules have binding sites.
when the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor, ions enter
"when key fits, neurotransmitter can enter from pre-synaptic to post-synaptic
Reuptake
process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach and are reabsorbed
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
Spinal reflexes
automatic behaviors processed in spinal cord, occur without brain involvement.
-happens within spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
outer edges of body (2 divisions)
Somatic Nervous System
Voluntary movements (peripheral nervous system)
Autonomic Nervous System
Involuntary Movements (2 branches)-(Peripheral nervous system)
Sympathetic Nervous System
FIGHT or FLIGHT-arouses the body (Autonomic Nervous System-Peripheral Nervous System)
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Returns body to normal (Autonomic Nervous System-Peripheral Nervous System)
Hindbrain
regulates basic life functions
Pons
bridge-relay information to cerebellum
-coordinate movement (Hindbrain)
Cerebellum
Control balance, movement, posture (Hindbrain)
Reticular Formation
attention, alterness and incoming sensory information
-regulates attention and sleep (Hindbrain)
Medulla
controls breathing, heart rate, and other vital life functions (digestion)--HINDBRAIN
Midbrain
processes auditory and visual sensory signals
Forebrain
cortex, limbic system
Cerebral Cortex
-whole exterior part (forebrain)
Corpus Callosum
thick bundle of axons, connects the left and right hemisphere so there is communication.
Temporal Lobe
primary Auditory cortex
Occipital Lobe
Primary Visual Cortex
parietal Lobe
Somatosensory cortex, processes sensory information
frontal Lobe
planning, initiating and executing voluntary muscle movements
--primary motor cortex--
Limbic System
involved in emotion, motivation, learning and memory (forebrain)
Hypothalamus
reward center-hunger, survival behaviors (limbic system-forebrain)
Hippocampus
memories, neurogenesis-new neurons are made (limbic system-forebrain)
Amygdala
emotions-recognition of emotion (limbic system-forebrain)
thalamus
Sensory relay-takes in information (limbic system-forebrain)
Agnosias
disorders of perception
Visual agnosias
can identify an object by touch/feel but not by sight
prosopagnosia
cannot identify faces
apraxias
disorders of action; preparation and initiation of action
broca's aphasia
difficulties with speech- motor/production of speech-studdering
wernicke's aphasia
difficulties understanding spoken or written language-full sentences but nonsensical--word salad--
Left hemisphere
language
Right hemisphere
faces, imagination, music, art
split-brain
a surgical procedure that cuts through the corpus callosum