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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram--"go car"--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "auxiliary" words.
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
babbling stage
beginning at 3 to 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language,; also, the study of meaning.
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we comgin them to communicate meaning.
computer neural networks
compter circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected nueral cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells.
artificial intelligence (AI)
the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes, such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language.
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial onceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
belief bias
the tendancy for one's beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
availability heuristic
esimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory, if instance come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem.
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier--but also more error-prone--use of heuristics.
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
a mental grouping or similar objects, events, ideas, or poeple.
all the mental ativities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.