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45 Cards in this Set

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Psychology
The science of individual behavior and mental processes.
Structuralism
A historical school of psychology devoted to uncovering the basic structures that make up mind and thought. Structuralists sought the "elements" of conscious experience.
Introspection
The process of reporting on one's own inner conscious experience.
Functionalism
A historical school of psychology that believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function.
Biological View
The psychological perspective that searches for the causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain and nervous system, and the endocrine (hormone) system.
Evolutionary View
A relatively new perspective in psychology that views behavior and mental processes in terms of genetic adaptations for survival and reproduction.
Cognitive View
The psychological perspective that emphasizes mental processing and interpretation of experience.
Cognitions
Mental processes, such as thinking, memory, sensation, and perception.
Psychodynamic View
A viewpoint that emphasizes the understanding of mental disorders in terms of unconscious needs, desires, memories, and conflicts.
Humanistic View
A viewpoint that emphasizes human ability, growth, potential, and free will.
Behavioral View or Behaviorism
A psychological perspective that finds the source of our actions in environmental stimuli, rather than in inner mental processes.
Sociocultural View
A psychological perspective that emphasizes the importance of social interaction, social learning, and a cultural perspective.
Cultural
A term referring to a somplex blend of language, beliefs, customs, values, and traditions developed by a group of people and shared with others in the same environment.
Experimental Psychologists
Psychologists who do research on basic psychological processes- as contrasted with applied psychologists.
Applied Psychologists
Psychologist who use the knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems.
Clinical Psychologists
Psychological practitioners who specialize in the treatment of mental disorders.
Counseling Psychologists
Psychological pracitioners who help people deal with a variety of problems, including relationships and vocational choice. Counseling psychologists are less likely than clinical Psychologists to do long-term therapy with persons having sever mental disorders.
Industrial and Organizational Psychologists
Applied psychologists who specialize in modifying the work environment to maximize productivity and moreale. They are often called I/O psychologists.
Engineering Psychologists
Applied psychologists who specialize in making objects and environments easier, more efficient, or more comfortable for people to use.
School Psychologists
Applied psychologists with expertise in the problems of teaching and learning.
Rehabilitation Psychologists
Applied psychologists who help people with physical and mental disorders adapt to the problems of everyday life and work.
Psychiatrists
Physicians who specialize in the treatment of mental disorders.
Psychoanalysts
Specialists (usually psychiatrists) who use Freudian methods of treating mental disorders.
Psuedoscience
Any approach to explaining phenomena in the natural world that does not use empirical ovservation or othe raspects of the scientific method.
Scientific Method
A 5-step process for empirical investigation of a hypotheses under conditions designed to control biases and subjective judgments.
Empirical Investigation
An approach to research that relies on sensory experience and observation as research data.
Theory
A testable explanation for a set of facts or observations.
Hypothesis
A statement predicting the outcome of a scientific study; a statement describing the relationship among variables in a study.
Operational Definitions
Specific descriptions of concepts involving the conditions of a scientific study. Operational definitions are state in terms of how the concepts are to be measured or what operations are being employed to produce them.
Independant Variables
A stimulus conditino that is so named because the xperimenter changes it independently of all the other carefully controlled experimental conditions.
Randomization
A process by which chance alone determined the order in which the stimulus was presented.
Data
Information, especially information gathered by a researcher to be used in testing a hypothesis.
Dependent Variable
The measured outcome of a study; the responses of the subjects in a study.
Experiment
A kind of research in which the researcher controls all the conditions and directly manipulates the conditions, including the independent variable.
Experimental Conditions
The stimulus conditions involved in exposing those in the experimental group to the special treatment being investigated.
Experimental Group
THose subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the treatment of interest.
Control Group
Those subjects who are used as a comparison for the experimental group. The control group is not given the special treatment of interest.
Control Condition
The stimulus conditions for the control group- conditions that are identical to the experimental condition in every respect, except for the special treatment given to the experimental group.
Correlation Study
A form of research in which the relationship between variables is studied, but without the experimental manipulation of an independent variable. Correlational studies can't determine cause-and-effect relationships.
Correlation Coefficient
A statistic, r, that indicates the relationship between two variables. Correlation coefficeients can range from -1.0 to 0 to +1.0.
Survey
A technique used in correlational research that typically involves seeking people's responses to a prepared set of verbal items.
Naturalistic Observation
A form of correlational research involving behavioral assessment of people or animals in their home surroundings.
Case Study
Research that involves a single subject (or, at most, a few subjects).
Double-Blind Control
An experimental procedure in which both researches and subjects are uniformed aobut the nature of the independent variable being administered.
Confounding Variables
Factors that could be confused with the independent variable and thus distort the results of a study.