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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
abnormal behavior
Patterns of emotion, thought, and action deemed pathological for one or more of the following reasons: infrequent occurrence, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction, and unexpectedness
anal stage
In psychoanalytic theory, the second psychosexual stage, which occurs during the second year of life when the anus is considered the principal erogonous zone
analytic psychology
A variation of Freud's psychoanalysis introduced by Carl Jung, focusig less on biological drives and more on factors, such as self-fulfillment, collective unconscious, and religious symbolism
Refuges established in western Europe in the fifteenth century to confine and provide for the mentally ill; forerunners of mental hospitals
aversive conditioning
Process believed to underlie the effectiveness of aversion therapy
behavior genetics
The study of individual differences in behavior that are attributable to differences in genetic makeup.
The school of psychology originally associated with John B. Watson, who proposed that observable behavior, not consciousness, is the proper subject matter of psychology. Contemporary behaviorists do use mediational concepts, provided they are firmly anchored to observables
behavior therapy
A branch of psychotherapy conceived narrowly as the application of classical and operant conditioning to the alteration of clinical problemsm, but more broadly as applied experimental psychology in a clinical context.
cathartic method
A therapeutic procedure to relieve emotional suffering introduced by Breuer and developed further by Freud in the late nineteenth century, whereby a patient recalls and relives an earlier emotional catastrophe and reexperiences the tension and unhappiness.
classical conditioning
A basic form of learning, sometimes referred to as Pavlovian conditioning, in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (called the unconditioned stimulus, UCS) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (called the unconditioned response, UCR). After repeated trials the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and evokes the same or a similar response, now called the conditioned response (CR). Compare operant conditioning.
clinical psychologist
An individual who has earned a Ph.D. degree in psychology or a Psy.D. and whose training has included an internship in a mental hospital or clinic.
collective unconscious
Jung's concept that every human being carries within the wisdom, ideas, and strivings of those who have come before.
counseling psychologist
A doctoral level mental health professional whose training is similar to that of a clinical psychologist though usually with less emphasis on research and serious psychopathology.
Relearning achieved by eliciting a new response in the presence of a particular stimulus.
defense mechanism
In psychoanalytic theory, reality distorting strategies unconsciously adopted to protect the ego from anxiety.
The doctrine that a person's abnormal behavior is caused by an autonomous evil spirit
In psychoanalytic theory, the predominantly conscious part of the personality, responsible for decision making and for dealing with reality
electra complex
In psychoanalytic theory, girls around age 4 have a sexual desire for the father which is repressed. Compare Oedipus complex.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A treatment that produces a convulsion by passing electric current through the brain; despite public concerns about this treatment, it can be useful in alleviating profound depression
The casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture.
The elimination of a classically conditioned response by the omission of the unconditioned stimulus. In operant conditioning, the elimination of the conditioned response by the omission of reinforcement
In psychoanalytic theory, the arrest of psychosexual development at a particular stage through too much or too little gratification at that stage
free association
A key psychoanalytic procedure in which the analysand is encouraged to give free rein to his or her thoughts and feelings, verbalizing whatever comes into the mind without monitoring its content. The assumption is that over time, repressed material will come forth for examination by both analysand and psychoanalyst
general paresis
Infection of the central nervous system by the spirochete "Treponema pallidum" which destroys brain tissue; marked by eye disturbances, tremors, and disordered speech as well as severe intellectual deterioration and psychotic symptoms
genital stage
In psychoanalytic theory, the final psychosexual stage, reached in adulthood, in which heterosexual interests predominate.
harmful dysfunction
Proposed definition of mental disorder that contains both a value judgement (harmful) and an putatively objective scientific componant (dysfunction)
In psychoanalytic theory, that part of the personality present at birth, comprising all the energy of the psyche, and expressed as biological urges that strive continually for gratification.
individual psychology
A variation of Freud's psychoanalysis introduced by Alfred Adler, focusing less on biological drives and more on such factors as people's conscious beliefs and goals for self-betterment.
In psychoanalysis, a key procedure in which the psychoanalyst points out to the analysand where resistance exists and what certain dreams and verbalizations reveal about impulses repressed in the unconscious; more generally, any statement by a therapist that construes the clients problem in a new way.
latency period
In psychoanalytic theory, the years between ages 6 and 12, during which id impulses play a minor role in motivation.
law of effect
A principle of learning that holds that behavior is acquired by virtue of its consequences.
Freudian term for the life-integrating instinct or force of the id; sometimes equated with sexual drive
Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others; or teaching by demonstrating and providing opportunities for imitation.
moral treatment
A therapeutic regimen, introduced by Philippe Pinel during the French Revolution, whereby mentally ill patients were released from their restraints and were treated with compassion and dignity rather than with contempt and denigration.
negative reinforcement
The strengthening of a tendency to exhibit desired havior by rewarding responses in that situation with the removal of an aversive stimulus.
Oedipus complex
In Freudian theory, the desire and conflict of the 4 year old male child who wants to possess his mother sexually and to eliminate the father rival. The threat of punishment from the father causes repression of these id impulses. Compare Electra complex.
operant conditioning
The acquisition or elimination of a response as a function of the environmental contingencies of reinforcement and punishment. Compare classical conditioning
oral stage
In psychoanalytic theory, the first psychosexual stage, which extends into the second year; during it the mouth is the principal erogenous zone.
phallic stage
In psychoanalytic theory, the third psychosexual stage, extending from ages 3 to 5 or 6, during which maximal gratification is obtained from genital stimulation
pleasure principle
In psychoanalytic theory, the demanding manner by which the id operates, seeking immediate gratification of its needs.
positive reinforcement
The strengthening of a tendency to exhibit desired behavior by rewarding responses in that situation with a desired reward
In psychoanalytic theory, the totality of the id, ego, and superego, including both conscious and unconscious components
A phsyician (MD) who has taken specialized postdoctoral training, called a residency, in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
psychoactive medications
Prescribed chemical compounds, for example Prozac, having a psychological effect that alters mood or thought process
Primarily the therapy procedures pioneered by Freud, entailing free association, dream analysis, and working through the transference neurosis. More recently the term has come to encompass the numerous variations on basic Freudian therapy.
A therapist who has taken specialized postdoctoral training in psychoanalysis after earning an MD or PhD degree
psychoanalytic theory
Central Freudian assumption that psychopathology results from unconsciousconflicts in the individual
Mental health professionals who conduct research into the nature and development of mental disorders. Their academic backgrounds can differ; some are trained as experiemental psychologists, others as psychiatrists, and still others as biochemists.
The field concerned with the nature and development of mental disorders.
A primarily verbal means of helping troubled individuals change their thoughts, feelings, and behavior to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction.
reality principle
In psychoanalytic theory, the manner in which the ego delays gratification and otherwise deals with the environment in a planned, rational fashion.
A defense mechanism whereby impulses and thoughts unacceptable to the ego are pushed into the unconscious
In operant conditioning, reinforcing responses that are successively closer approximation to the desired behavior
social worker
A mental health professional who holds a master of social work (MSW) degree
The pernicious beliefs and attitudes held by a society, ascribed to groups considered deviant in some manner, such as the mentally ill.
In psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that acts as the conscience and reflects society's moral standards as learned from parents and teachers
systematic desensitization
A major behavior therapy procedure that has a fearful person, while deeply relaxed, imagine a series of progressively more fearsome situations, such that fear is dispelled as a response incompatible with relaxation; useful for treating psychological problems in which anxiety is the principal difficulty.
The venting of the analysand's emotions, either positive or negative, by treating the psychoanalyst as the symbolic representative of someone important in the past.
A state of unawareness without sensation or thought; in psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality, in particular the id impulses or energy, of which the ego is unaware.