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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Accuracy
gathering of laboratory and real world data precisely
Correlation
events not necessarily causally relative
Counseling Psychologist
psychologist who works with people who have behavior problems; career planning; marriage and family problems; and parenting
Debriefing
information revealed following an experiment
Educational
psychologist who focuses on how learning proceeds in the classroom, how intelligence affects performance, and the relationship between personality and learning
Introspection
description and analysis of what one is thinking and feeling or just thought about
Engineering
psychologist who focuses on how to use machines most efficiently
Forensic
psychologist who focuses on legal issues and often evaluate whether an inmate is ready for parole, or whether a specific rehabilitation program is achieving its goals
Health
psychologist who focuses on the way life-style changes can facilitate health improvement
Hypothesis
educated guess
Industrial/Organizational
psychologists concerned with the way employers evealuate employees; they focus on personnel selection, employee motication, work behavior, and work appraisals
Objectivity
evaluating research without preconceived ideas
Participant
previously known as the subject of an experiment; one whose behavior is observed for data collection
Psychology
science of behavior and mental processes
Replication
repeating an experiment to verify results
Sample
group that is assumed to represent the population
Sports
emerging field that focuses on brain-behavior interactions
Theory
collection of interrelated ideas
Variables
a condition or characteristic of a situation or person
Applied Psychologists
conduct research and then use their findings to solve practical problems
Experiment Psychologist
try to identify and understand the basic elements of behavior andmental processes; an approach not a specific field; does not define the topics they examine
Independent Variable
variable in a controlled experiment that the experimenter directly and purposely manipulates to see how the other variables under study will be affected
Dependent Variable
The variable in a controlled experiment that is expected to change because of the manipulation of the independent variable
Operational Definition
definition of a variable in terms of the set of methods or procedures used to measure or study that variable
Interview
a face to face meeting in which a series of standardized questions are used to gather detailed information
Thinking Critically
consists of evaluating evidence, sifting through choices, assessing outcomes, and deciding whether conclusions make sense; being open minded but evaluative
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
the unwitting creation by a researcher of a situation that unintentionally allows his or her expectancies to influence the participants or the situation
Humanistic Psychologists
human beings have free will to determine their destiny
Eclectic Approach
follows all traditional approaches
Experiment Strengths
Manipulation of variables to control outside influences; best method for identifying causal relationships
Experiment Weaknesses
Laboratory environment is artificial; limited generalizability of findings; manipulation of some variables is unethical or impractical
Questionnaire Strengths
Effective means of measuring actions, attitudes, opinions, preferences, and intentions of large numbers of people
Questionnaire Weaknesses
Lack of explanatory power; validity of findings is limited by sample; reliability is difficult to determine; self-report may be inaccurate or biased
Interview Strengths
Allows a wide range of responses; follow-up questions are possible
Interview Weaknesses
Does not enable researchers to draw conclusions about causal relationships; time-consuming
Naturalistic Observation Strengths
Behavior is unaffected by a researcher's manipulations
Naturalistic Observation Weaknesses
Little opportunity to control variables; time-consuming
Case Study Strengths
Extensive evidence is gathered on a single person
Case Study Weaknesses
Lack of generalizability of findings; time-consuming