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45 Cards in this Set

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A process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.
learning
The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses.
conditioning
The basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the same response.
classical conditioning

also called respondent or Pavlovian conditioning
The natural stimulus that reflexively elicits a response without the need for prior learning.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
The unlearned, reflexive response that is elicited by an unconditional stimulus.
unconditioned response (UCR)
A formerly neutral stimulus that acquires the capacity to elicit a reflexive response.
conditioned stimulus (CS)
The learned, reflexive response to a conditioned stimulus.
conditioned response (CR)
The occurrence of a learned response not only to the original stimulus but to other, similar stimuli as well.
stimulus generalization
The occurrence of a learned response to a specific stimulus but not to other, similar stimuli.
stimulus discrimination
The gradual weakening and apparent disappearance of conditioned behavior. In classical conditioning, this occurs when the conditioned stimulus repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.
Extinction (in classical conditioning)
The reappearance of previously extinguished conditioned response after a period of time without exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
spontaneous recovery
School of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasize the scientific study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning.
behaviorism
An individual's psychological and physiological responseto what is actually a fake treatment or drug.
placebo response

also called placebo effect
A classically conditioned dislike for and avoidance of a particular food that develops when and organism becomes ill after eating the food.
taste aversion
In learning theory, the idea that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses.
biological preparedness
Learning principle proposed by Thorndike that responses followed by a satisfying effect become strengthened and are more likely to recur in a particular situation, while responses followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to recur in a particular situation.
law of effect
Skinner's term for an actively emitted (or voluntary) behavior that operates on the environment to produce consequences.
operant
The basic learning process that involves changing the probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response.
operant conditioning

also called Skinnerian conditioning
The occurrence of a stimulus or event following a response that increases the likelyhood of that response being repeated.
reinforcement
A situation in which a response is followed by the addition of a reinforcing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations.
positive reinforcement
A situation in wchic a rosponse results in the removal of, avoidance of, or escape from a punishing stimulus, increasing the likelihood that the response will be repeated in similar situations.
negative reinforcement
A stimulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species, such as food, water, or other biological necessities.
primary reinforcer
A stimulus or event that has acquired reinforcing value bye being associated with a primary reinforcer.
conditioned reinforcer

also called a secondary reinforcer
The presentation of a stimulus or event following a behavior that acts to decrease the likelihood of the behavior's being repeated.
punishment
A situation in which an operant is followed by the presentation or addition of an aversive stimulus.
punishment by application

or

positive punishment
A situation in which an operant is followed by the removal or subtraction of a reinforcing stimulus.
punishment by removal

or

negative punishment
A specific stimulus in the presence of which a particular response is more likely to be reinforced, and in the absence of which a particular response is not reinforced.
discriminative stimulus
The experimental apparatus invented by B.F. Skinner to study the realtionship between environmental events and active behaviors.
operant chamber

or

Skinner box
A schedule of reinforcement in which every occurence of a particular response is reinforced.
continuous reinforcement
A situation in which the occurrence of a particular response is only sometimes followed by a reinforcer.
partial reinforcement
The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned behavior. In operant conditioning, this occurs when an emitted behavior is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
extinction (in operant conditioning)
The phenomenon in which behaviors that are conditioned using partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction than behaviors that are conditioned using continuous reinforcement.
partial reinforcement effect
The delivery of a reinforcer according to a preset pattern based on the number of responses or the time interval between responses.
schedule of reinforcement
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of responses has occurred.
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after an average number of responses, which varies unpredictably from trial to trial.
variable-ratio (VR) schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after a preset time interval has elapsed.
fixed-interval (FI) schedule
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after an average time interval, which varies unpredictably from trial to trial.
variable-interval (VI) schedule
The application of learning principles to help people develop more effective or adaptive behaviors.
behavior modification
Tolman's term for the mental representation of the layout of a familiar environment.
cognitive map
Tolman's term for learning that occurs in the absence of reinforcement but is not behaviorally demonstrated until a reinforcer becomes available.
latent learning
A phenomenon in which exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior.
learned helplessness
The tendency of an animal to revert to instinctive behaviors that can interfere with the performance of an operantly conditioned response.
instinctive drift
Learning that occurs through observing the actions of others.
observational learning
A classically conditioned response in which stimuli that reliably precede the administration of a drug elicit a physiological reaction that counteracts, or it opposite to, the drug's effects.
conditioned compensatory response (CCR)
The operant conditioning procedure of selectively reinforcing successively closer appoximations of a goal behavior until the goal behavior is displayed.
shaping