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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the activation of receptors in the various sense organs
sensation
specialized form of neurons
sensory receptors
the smallest difference between two stimuli (detected 50% of the time)
just noticeable difference (JND/ difference threshold)
the smallest amount of energy needed to consciously detect a stimulus (50% of the time it is present)
absolute threshold
stimuli that are below the level of conscious awareness; just strong enough to activate the sensory receptors, but not strong enough for people to be consciously aware of them
subliminal stimuli
claims that subliminal stimuli act upon the unconscious mind, influencing behavior
subliminal perception
tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging info
habituation
tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging
sensory adaptation
contains photoreceptors that respond to various light waves
retina
visual sensory receptors responsible for noncolor sensitivity to low levels of light
rods
visual sensory receptors responsible for color vision and sharpness of vision
cones
short tunnel that runs from the pinna to the eardrum (tympatic membrane)
auditory canal
thin section of skin that tightly covers the opening into the middle part of the ear, just like a drum skin covers the opening in a drum
eardrum
when sound waves hit the eardrum, it vibrates and causes three tiny bones in the middle ear to vibrate: ______
hammer
anvil
stirrup
snail-shape structure of the inner ear that is filled with fluid
cochlea
rests in the basilar membrane; contains receptor cells for sense of hearing
organ of corti
bundle of axons from the hair cells in the inner ear; receives neural message from the organ of Corti
auditory nerve
taste receptor cells in the mouth; responsible for sense of taste
taste buds
the sense of taste
gustation
5 basic tastes
sweet
sour
salty
bitter
"brothy"
sense of smell
olfaction
areas of the brain located just above the sinus cavity and just below the frontal lobes that receive info from the olfactory receptor cells
olfactory bulbs
the body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense, and the vestibular senses
somesthetic senses
"soma"
body
"esthetic"
feeling
the sensation of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain
skin senses
sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground and each other
kinesthetic sense
the sense of movement, balance, and body position sensory conflict theory an explanation of motion sickness in which gthe information from the eyes conflicts with the info from the vestibular senses, resulting dizziness, nausea, and other physical discomforts
vestibular senses
interpreting and organizing sensory information in some meaningful fashion
perception
the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size, regardless of its distance
size constancy
interpreting the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina
shape constancy
perceiving the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change
brightness constancy
the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, as existing on a background
figure-ground
the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group
similarity
the tendency to perceive objects that are close to each other as aprt of the same grouping
proximity
the tendency to complete figures that are incomplete
closure
the tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken up pattern.
continuity
the ability to perceive the world in three dimensions
depth perception
cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only
monocular cues (pictorial depth cues)
the tendency for parallel lines to appear to converge on each other
linear perspective
close objects project a larger retinal image than distant objects
relative size
closer objects block objects in the distance
interposition (overlap)
objects in the distance looked blurred and fuzzy compared to near objects
aerial perspcetive
close objects have more texture than objects in the distance
texture gradient
cues for perceiving depth based on two eyes
binocular cues
the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object
convergence
the difference in images between the two eyes
binocular disparity
the tendency to perceive things a certain way because previous experiences or expectations influence those perceptions
perceptual set (perceptual expectancy)
the use of preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole
top-down processing
the analysis of the smaller features to build up to a complete perception
bottom-up processing
claim of perception that occurs without the use of normal sensory channels such as sight, hearing, touch, taste or smell
extrasensory perception (ESP)
claimed ability to read another persons thoughts, or mind reading
telepathy
supposed ability to "see" things that are not actually present
clairvoyance
supposed ability to know something in advance of its occurance or to predict a future event
precognition
the study of ESP, ghosts, and other subjects that do not normally fall into the realm of ordinary psychology
parapsychology