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38 Cards in this Set

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A developmental period, lasting from about the ages of 12 to 18, that marks the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood; it is a transitional period of considerable biological, cognitive, social, and personality changes.
Aging process
Changes caused by a combination of certain genes and proteins that interfere with organ functioning and by the natural production of toxic molecules (free radicals) that, in turn, cause random damage to body organs and to DNA (the building blocks of life). Such damage eventually exceeds the body's ability to repair itself and results in greater susceptibility to diseases and death.
Authoritative parents
Parents who attempt to direct their children's activities in a rational
Intelligent way They are supporting, loving, and committed, encourage verbal give-and-take, and discuss their rules and policies with their children.
Authoritarian parents
Parents who attempt to shape, control, and evaluate the behavior and attitudes of their children in accordance with a set standard of conduct, usually an absolute standard that comes from religious or respected authorities.
BioPsychoSocial model
The representation of adolescent development as a process that occurs simultaneously on many levels and includes sexual, cognitive, social, and personality changes that interact and influence each other.
Cognitive development
How a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors.
In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, the component of love associated with making a pledge to nourish the feelings of love and to actively maintain the relationship.
companionate love
A condition associated with trusting and tender feelings for someone whose life is closely bound up with one's own.
conventional level
Kohlberg's intermediate level of moral reasoning. It consists of two stages: At stage 3, moral decisions are guided most by conforming to the standards of others we value; at stage 4, moral reasoning is determined most by conforming to the laws of society.
One of the major female hormones. At puberty, estrogen levels increase eightfold and stimulate the development of both primary and secondary sexual characteristics.
female secondary sexual characteristics
Sexual characteristics whose development in the female is triggered by the increased secretion of estrogen during puberty; they include the growth of pubic hair, development of breasts, and widening of hips.
formal operations stage
Piaget's fourth cognitive stage, lasting from about 12 years of age through adulthood. During this stage, adolescents and adults develop the ability to think about abstract or hypothetical concepts, to consider an issue from another person's viewpoint, and to solve cognitive problems in a logical manner.
gender roles
Traditional or stereotypic behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that parents, peers, and society designate as masculine or feminine. Gender roles affect how we think and behave; formerly called sex roles.
How we describe ourselves, including our values, goals, traits, interests, and motivations.
In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, the component of love associated with feeling close and connected to someone; it develops through sharing and communicating.
limbic system
A group of about half a dozen interconnected structures in the core of the forebrain that are involved in many motivational behaviors, such as obtaining food, drink, and sex; organizing emotional behaviors such as fear, anger, and aggression; and storing memories. It is sometimes referred to as our primitive, or animal, brain because the same structures are found in the brains of animals that are evolutionarily very old.
male secondary sexual characteristics
Sexual characteristics whose development in the male is triggered by the increased secretion of testosterone during puberty; they include the growth of pubic hair, muscle development, and a change (deepening) of the voice.
The first menstrual period; it is a signal that ovulation may have occurred and that the girl may have the potential to conceive and bear a child.
A gradual stoppage in the secretion of the major female hormone (estrogen). This process, which occurs in women at about age 50 (range 35-60), results in the cessation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle.
normal aging
A gradual and natural slowing of our physical and psychological processes from middle through late adulthood.
In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, the component of love associated with feeling physically aroused and attracted to someone.
passionate love
A condition that is associated with continuously thinking about the loved one and is accompanied by warm sexual feelings and powerful emotional reactions.
pathological aging
Acceleration of the aging process, which may be caused by genetic defects, physiological problems, or diseases.
perceptual speed
The rate at which we can identify a particular sensory stimulus; this rate slows down noticeably after age 60.
permissive parents
Parents who are less controlling and behave with a nonpunishing and accepting attitude toward their children's impulses, desires, and actions. They consult with their children about policy decisions, make few demands, and tend to use reason rather than direct power.
postconventional level
Kohlberg's highest level of moral reasoning, at which moral decisions are made after carefully thinking about all the alternatives and striking a balance between human rights and laws of society.
preconventional level
Kohlberg's lowest level of moral reasoning. It consists of two stages: At stage 1, moral decisions are based primarily on fear of punishment or the need to be obedient; at stage 2, moral reasoning is guided most by satisfaction of one's self-interest, which may involve making bargains.
processing speed
The rate at which we encode information into long-term memory or recall or retrieve information from long-term memory; this rate slows down after age 60.
psychosocial stages
According to Erikson, eight developmental periods during which an individual's primary goal is to satisfy desires associated with social needs: the eight periods are associated, respectively, with issues of trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity, and ego integrity.
A developmental period, corresponding to the ages of 9–17, when the individual experiences significant biological changes and, as a result, develops secondary sexual characteristics and reaches sexual maturity.
reaction time
The rate at which we respond (see, hear, move) to some stimulus; this rate slows down noticeably after age 60.
Mental categories that, like computer files, contain knowledge about people, events, and concepts. Because schemas influence which stimuli we attend to, how we interpret stimuli, and how we respond to stimuli, they can bias and distort our thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors. See also: event schemas; gender schemas; person schemas; role schemas; and self schemas.
How much an individual likes himself or herself; it includes feelings of self-worth, attractiveness, and social competence.
social development
How a person develops a sense of self or self-identity, develops relationships with others, and develops the skills useful in social interactions.
social role theory
The theory that emphasizes the importance of social and cultural influences on gender roles and states that gender differences between males and females arise from different divisions of labor.
Sternberg's triangular theory of love
The idea that love has three components: passion, intimacy, and commitment. Passion is feeling physically aroused and attracted to someone; intimacy is feeling close and connected to someone, through sharing and communicating; and commitment is pledging to nourish the feelings of love and actively maintain the relationship.
Sternberg's triarchic theory
The idea that intelligence can be divided into 3 ways of gathering and processing information using analytical or logical thinking skills that are measured by traditional intelligence tests; using problem-solving skills that require creative thinking, the ability to deal with novel situations, the ability to learn from experience, using practical thinking skills that help a person adjust to, and cope with, his or her socio-cultural environment.
The major male hormone, which stimulates the growth of genital organs and the development of secondary sexual characteristics