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43 Cards in this Set

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An individual's unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
personality
A theory that attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people's patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
personality theory
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality, which emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality and development.
psychoanalysis
A psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind.
free association
Latin for "the it," in Freud's theory, the completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives; ruled by the pleasure principle.
id
in Freud's theory, the self-preservation or life instinct, reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the species.
Eros
In Freud's theory, the psychological and emotional energy associated with expressions of sexuality; the sex drive.
libido
In Freud's theory, the death instinct, reflected in aggressive, destructive, and self-destructive actions.
Thanatos
In Freud's theory, the motive to obtain pleasure, and avoid tension or discomfort; tha most fundamental human motive and the guiding principle of the id.
pleasure principle
Latin for "I," in Freud's theory, the partly conscious ratiional component of personality that regulates thoughts and behavior and is most in touch with the demands of the external world.
ego
In Freud's theory, that capacity to accommodate external demands by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist.
reality principle
In Freud's theory, the partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personality that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules.
superego
In psychoanalytic theory, largely unconscious distortions of thoughts or perceptions that act to reduce anxiety.
ego defense mechanisms
In psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious exclusion of anxiety-provoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from conscious awareness; the most fundamental ego defense mechanism.
repression
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitute target that is less threatening or dangerous.
displacement
In psychoanalytic thoery, an ego defense mechanism that involves unconsciously redirecting sexual urges toward productive, socially acceptable, nosexual activities; and form of displacement.
sublimation
In Freud's theory, age-related developmental periods in which the child's sexual urges are focused on different areas of the body and are expressed through activities associatied with those areas.
psychosexual stages
In Freud's theory, a child's unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent.
Oedipus complex
In psychoanalytic theory, an ego defense mechanism that involves reducing anxiety by imitating the bahavior and characteristics of another person.
identification
The theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development.
humanistic psychology
In Roger's theory, the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism.
actualizing tendency
The set of perceptions and beliefs that you hold about yourself.
self-concept
In Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others.
conditional positive regard

or

conditional love or acceptance
In Roger's theory, the sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don't conform to the standards and expectations of others.
unconditional positive regard

or

unconditional love or acceptance
Albert Bandura's theory of personality, which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism.
social cognitive theory
A model proposed by psychologist Albert Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as caused by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and environmental factors.
reciprocal determinism
The beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence or doubt.
self-efficacy
A relatively stable, enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way.
trait
A theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions.
trait theory
Personaltiy characteristices or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior.
surface traits
The most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number.
source traits
A trait theory of personality that identifies five basic source traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) as the fundamental building blocks of personality.
five-factor model of personality
An interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity in behavior.
behavioral genetics
A test that assesses a person's abilities, aptitudes, interests, or personality, on the basis of a systematically obtained sample of behavior.
psychological test
A type of personality test that involves a person's interpreting an ambiguous image; used to asess unconscious motives, conflicts, psychological defenses, and personality traits.
projective tests
A projective test using inkblots, developed by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach in 1921.
Rorschach inkblot test
A psuedoscience that claims to assess personality, social, and occupational attributes based on a person's distinctive handwriting, doodles, and drawing style.
graphology
A projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of ambiguous scenes.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A type of psychological test in which a person's responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms.
self-report inventory
A self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics and psychological disorders; used to assess both normal and disturbed populations.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics in normal populations.
California Personality Inventory (CPI)
A self-report inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that generates a personaltiy profile with rating on 16 trait dimensions.
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
The aspect of the self-concept that includes images of the selves that you hope, fear, or expect to become in the future.
possible selves