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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Early school of psychology that emphasized studying the most basic components, or structures, of conscious experience (thought).
Early school of psychology that emphasized studying the purpose, or function, of behavior and mental experiences.
Personality theory and form of psychotherapy thyat emphasize the role of the unconscious factors in personality and behavior.
School of psychology and theorectical viewpoint that emphasize the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning.
School of psychology and theorectical viewpoint that emphasize each person's unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction.
humaistic psychology
The attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to another.
Branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behavior and mental processes.
cross-cultural psychology
The belief that one's own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others, and the related tendency to use one's own culture as a standard by which to judge other cultures.
Cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the individual over the needs and goals of the group.
individualistic cultures
Cultures that emphasize the needs and goals of the group over the needs and goals of the individual.
collectivistic cultures
The application of principles of evolution, including natural selection, to explain psychological processes and phenomena.
evolutionary psychology
A set of assumptions, attitudes and procedures that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, in generating evidence, and in drawing conclusions.
scientific method
Evidence that is based on objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation.
empirical evidence
A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
A factor that can vary in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified.
A precise description of how the variables in a study will be manipulated or measured.
operational definition
The active process of trying to minimize the influence of preconceptions and biases while rationally evaluating evidence, determining the conclusions that can be drawn from evidence, and considering alternative explanations.
critical thinking
A branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize, summarize, and interpret data.
A mathematical indication that research results are not very likely to have occurred by chance.
statistically significant
A statistical technique that involoves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends.
To repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase confidence in the validity of the original findings.
A tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations.
Scientific procedures that involve systematically observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behaviors and events.
descriptive research methods
The systematic observation and recording of behaviours as they occur in their natural setting.
naturalistic observation
A fake or false science that makes claims based on little or no scientific evidence.
Alleged abilities or events that fall outside the range of normal experience and established scientific explanations.
paranormal phenomena
In order for a claim to be scientifically tested and proved true, there must be identifiable evidence that could prove the claim false.
rule of falsifiability
The mistaken belief that two factors or events are related when they are not.
illusory correlation
An intensive study of a single individual or small group or individuals.
case study
A questionnaire or interview designed to investigate the opinions, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.
A selected segment of the population used to represent the group that is being studied.
A selected segment that very closely parallels tha larger population being studied on relevant characteristics.
representative sample
Process in which subjects are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study.
random selection
A research study that allows the precise calculation of how strongly related two factors are to each other.
correlational study
A numerical indication of the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables.
correlation coefficient
A finding that two factors vary systematically in the same direction, increasing or decreasing together.
positive correlation
A finding that two factors vary systematically in opposite directions, on increasing as the other decreases.
negative correlation
A method of investigation used to demonstrate case-and-effect relationships by purposely manipulating one factor thought to produce change in another factor.
experimental method
The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change in an experiment; also called the <i>treatment of interest</i>.
independent variable
That factor that is observed and measured for change in an experiment; thought to be influenced by the independent variable.
dependent variable
The process of assigning participants to experimental conditions so that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups in the study.
random assignment
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, including the independent variable or treatment of interest.
experimental group or experimental condition
In an experiment, the group of participants who are exposed to all experimental conditions, except the independent variable or treatment of interest; the group against which changes in the experimental group are compared.
control group or control condition
In an experiment, a control group in which the participants are exposed to a fake independent variable, or placebo. The effects of the placebo are compared to the effects of the actual independent variable, or treatment of interest, on the experimental group.
placebo control group
Any change in performance that results from mere repetition of a task.
practice effect
Changes in a subject's behaviour produced by the subject's belief that change should happen; also called placebo effects.
expectancy effects
Experimental technique in which neither of the participants nor the researcher intereacting with the participants is aware of the group or condition to which the participants have been assigned.
double-blind study
In a research study, subtle cues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicate the kind of response or behvaiour that is expected from the participant.
demand characteristics
Branch of psychology that studies the behavior of different animal species.
comparative psychology