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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A healthy outcome during infancy is the quality of ?
caregiving
Erikson's first stage is?
basic trust vs. mistrust
Erikson's second staget is?
autonomy vs. shame and doubt
basic autonomy and trust grow out of ___,___ parenting and reasonable expectations for impulse control starting in the 2nd yr
warm,sensitive
what is the most reliable cue for babies feelings and emotions
facial expressions
happiness,interest,surprise are universial in humans and other primates have a long evoluntarily history of promoting survival and can be directed inferred from facial expression
basic emotions
what are the two global arousal states:
attraction to a pleasant stimulation and withdrawl from an unpleasant stimulus
at this age face, voice, and posture form well-organized signals that vary meaningful w/ enviornmental events
6 months
at this age infants smile at interesting sights
end of first month
social smile-a broad grin
6 to 10 weeks
laughter occurs at this age?
3 to 4 months
at this age infants smile more and laugh when interacting with familiar people
middle of first year
fear rises during this age?
second half of the first year
frequent expression of fear is to unfamiliar adults, called:
stranger anxiety
babies use familiar cargivers as a:
secure base-point from which to explore, venturing into the enviornment and then returning for emotional support
stranger anxiety and fear decline during this age due to cognitive development and discriminating more effectivly
first 2 years
infants become sensitive to the structure and timing of face to face interactions
4 months
infants perceive facial expressions as organized patterns and can match the emotion in a voice with the appropriate face of a speaking person
5 months
infants engage in ____ which they actively seek emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation
social referencing
humans are capable of a second,higher-order set of feelings including guilt,shame,embarrasment, they are called:
self-conscious emotion-because each involves injury to or enhancement of our sense of self
self-conscious emotions appear at this age?
18 to 24 months
refers to strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
emotional self-regulation
rapid development of the ___ lobes of the cerebral cortex increases the baby's tolerance for stimulation
frontal
what age? ability to shift attention helps ifants control emotion
4 months
at this age infants have a vocabulary for talking about feelings
end of second year--happens rapidly
early-appearing stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation
temperament
refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal,attention,and motor activity
reactivity
refers to strategies that modify that reactivity
self-regulation
_____ practices can modify children's temperaments considerbly
parenting
quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences
easy child
this type of temperament is 40% of the sample
easy child
irregular in daily routines, What tempermant:is slow to accept new experiences and tends to react negatively and intensely
difficult child
this type of temperament is 10% of the sample:
difficult child
what temperament:inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to enviornmental stimuli,is negative in mood and adjusts slowly to new experiences
slow-to-warm-up child
this type of temperament is 15% of the sample:
slow-to-warm-up child
this temperament has sparked the most interest because it places children at high risk for adjustment problems
difficult
this temperament has fewer problems in early years, but show excessive fearfulness and slow behavior in the late preschool years and school years
slow-to-warm-up child
the self-regulatory dimension of temperament, the capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response
effortful control
the stability of temperament is
low to moderate, children who score low/high on attention span respond similary down the road
identical twins are more similar than _____ across a wide range of temperamental and personality traits
fraternal twins
on average half of individual differences have been attributed to differences in
genetic makeup
consistent ____ and ___ differences in early temperament exist
ethnic and sex
what other influence is powerful on temperament
enviornment
Parents tendency to empahsize each childs unique quality affects their _____ practices
child rearing
describes how temperament and enviornment can together produce favorable outcomes, it involves creating child rearing enviornments that recognize each child's temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning
goodness of fit model