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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral stimulus
classical conditioning
a stimulus that invariably causes a organism to respond in a specific way
unconditioned stimulus
results from(elicited by) the unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned response
is neutral until subject pairs the unconditioned stimulus with it
conditioned stimulus
behavior exhibited as conditioned and unconditioned responses are paired
conditioned response
a conditioning technique designed to gradually reduce anxiety about a particular object or situation
conditioned avoidance of certain foods even if there is only one pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
taste aversion
behavior designed to operate on the enviroment in a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant
operant behavior
a stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
a stimulus that follows a behavior and decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated
any event whose presense increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
positive reinforcer
any event whose reduction or termination increases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
negative reinforcer
any event whose presense decreases the likelihood that the ongoing behavior will recur
developing elaborate cognitive explanations for accidental or randomly occuring reinforcements
superstitious behavior
failure to take steps to avoid or escape from an unpleasant or aversive stimulus that occurs as a result of previous exposure to unavoidable painful stimuli
learned helplessness
the "building phase" of conditioing during which the likelihood or strength of the desired response increases
pairing the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the learning trials
intermittent pairing
a box often used in operant conditioing of animals which limits the available response and thus increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur
skinner box
reinforcing successive approximations to a desired behavior
a decrease in the strength or frequency of a learned response because of failure to continue pairing the u.s. and the c.s. or withholding of reinforcement
the reappearance of an extinguished response after the passage of time without further training
spontaneous recovery
the transfer of a learned response to a different but similar stimuli
stimulus generalization
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response to all other stimuli
stimulus discrimination
giving a response that is somewhat different from the response originally learned to that stimulus
response generalization
a reinforcer that is rewarding in itself
primary reinforcer
a reinforcer whose value is acquired thru association with other primary or secondary reinforcers
secondary reinforcer
a reliable "if-then" relationship between two events such as u.s. and c.s.
when the c.s. follows the u.s.
backward conditioning
a process where by prior events prevent conditioning to a second stimulus even when the two stimuli are presented together
in operant conditioning, the rule for determining when and how often reinforcers will be delivered
schedule of reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed length of time since the last reinforcement
fixed-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after varying lengths of time following the last reinforcement
variable-interval schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which the correct response is reinforced after a fixed number of correct responses
fixed-ratio schedule
a reinforcement schedule in which a varying number of correct responses must occur before reinforcement is presented
variable-ratio schedule
learning that depends on mental processes that are not directly observable
cognitive learning
learning that is not immediately reflected in a behavior change
latent learning
a learned mental image of a spatial enviroment that may be called on to solve problems when stimuli in the enviroment change
cognitive maps
learning that occurs rapidly as a results of understanding all the elements of a problem
the ability to become increasingly more effective in solving problems as more problems are solved
learning sets
a view of learning that emphasizes the ability to learn by observing a model or receiving instructions, without first hand experience by the learner
social learning theory
learning by observing other people's behavior
observational/vicarious learning
reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affect the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models
vicarious reinforcement or punishment