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41 Cards in this Set

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The best way of estimating a child's physical maturity is?
using the skeletal age
head to tail, head develops more rapidly than the lower part of the body
cephalocaudal trend
near to far, from the center of the body outward
proximodistal trend
in the prenatal period neurons are produced where?
neural tube
neurons that are stimulated sometimes but lose their synapse are?
synaptic pruning...returns neurons not needed at the moment back to an uncommitted state so they can support future development
coatinf of neural fibers
myelination
largest most complex brain structure 85% of brain weight, responsible for intelligence
cerebral cortex
auditory and visual cortexes and areas responsible for body movement over the ____ yrs?
first
frontal lobes are responsible for?
consciousness,inhibation of impulses,integration of info, regulation of behavior through planning
left hemisphere deals with?
right?
verbal,+ emotion
spatial - emotion
specialization of the two hemis?
lateralization
if a part of the brain is damaged,other parts can take over tasks that it would have handled
brain plasicity
the brain is more plastic durin the first few ____ than at any later time of life?
first
young brains rapidly developing organization, depends on ordinary experiences
experiece-expectant brain growth
occurs throughtout our lives, additional growth and refinement of established brain structures that result from a specific learning experience that vary
experiece-dependent brain growth
hormone within the brain that promotes drowsiness
melatonin
what 3 factors affect early physical growth?
heredity, nutrition, emotional well-being
heredity affects growth as well as?
genetic makeup
nutrtion is crucial during the first ___ yrs.
2, because brain/body are growin so rapidly
wasted condition of the body, diet low in nutrients, painfully thin and in danger of dyin
marasmus
unbalanced diet very low in protein, body responds by breakin down its own protein reserves, causes swelling
kwashiorkor
growth disorder that results from lack of parental love
nonorganic failure to thrive
changes in behavior as the result of experience
learning
2 types of learning:
operant- operate on enviornment and stimuli that follow (rewards, punishmentS) and classical conditiong-NS paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
stimulus that increase the occurence of a response
reinforcer
gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
habituation
new stimulus-chang in enviornment, causes responsiveness to return to a high level
recovery
control over actions that help infants get around their enviornment such as crawling, walking,standing
gross motor
smaller movements such as reaching and grasping
fine motor
mastery of motor skills invovles acquiring increasingly complex systems of action
dynamic systems theory of motor development
this promotes the greatest role in infant cognitive development
reaching
clumsy motion in which fingers close against palm
ulnar grasp
this age they grasp to the size/shape of the objects
3 months
this age they coordinate both hands in exploring objects
4 to 5 months
use thumb and index finger is called?
pincer grasp
we organize and interpret what we see?
perception
3 depths cues are:
motion-infants are sensitive
binocular-2 eyes have different views
pictoral-3-d
difference in amount of light between adjacent regions
contrast sensitivity
perceive objects and events as unified wholes ex: sound, odor,taste
intermodal perception
info that overlaps 2 or more sensory systems, ex:rate, rhythm,duration,intensity
amodal sensory properties
those that remain stable, in a constantly changing perceptual world
differentiation theory, invariant features