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74 Cards in this Set

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Nervous System

whats it made of (large scale, not cells)
how does it communicate
it allows all ____ and ____ ______ to take place
the structures and organs that facilitate electrical and chemical communication in the body and allow all behavior and mental processes to take place
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
All the nerves in the body outside of the brain and spinal cord
Neurons
the type of cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system and functions through specialized structures, including dendrites, axons, and axon terminals
dendrite:

whats it do?
is it receptive/analytic/expressive?
receive neural signals

receptive
axon:

whats it do?

receptive/analytic/expressive
transmits neural signals

expressive
axon terminal:

Whats it do??
receptive/analytic/expressive
relays signals to adjacent neurons

think of SSRI diagram
SSRI diagram
axon hillock:

whats it do
receptive/analytic/expressive
part of a neuron that connects the cell body to the axon. It is attributed as the place where EPSPs from numerous synaptic inputs on the dendrites or cell body accumulate. If the accumulated potential reaches the threashold, an action potential propagates through the rest of the axon (or "backwards" towards the dendrites as seen in backpropagation).

Analytic
bundles of neurons in Per.NS
nerves
bundles of neurons in CNS
tracts
3 types of neurons
efferent
afferent
interneurons
direction
efferent neurons (motor neurons)
latin ex (out of)

carry messages from CNS to other structures in the body
afferent neurons (sensory neurons)
carry messages to CNS
interneurons
neurons that connect sensory and motor neurons together
glial cells
cells in the NS that nourish the neurons and provide support functions

surround almost all neurons
myelin sheath
a thin, white, fatty layer that covers some large motor neurons and insulates them from other neurons.

Glial cells help create it

myelin lets neurons communicate faster
3 specialized structures of neurons
dendrites
axons
synapses
dendrites
 thin, bushy, widely branching fibers that extend outward from a neuron’s cell body and that <receive signals> from neighboring neurons and carry them back to the cell body.
axons
a thin, elongated structure that <transmits signals> from a neuron’s cell body to the axon terminals, which pass the signals on to adjacent neurons
synapses
the microscopically small space between the axon terminals of neuron and the dendrites, cell body, or axons of other neurons
In resting state, neurons are positively/negatively charged on the interior (relative to exterior)
Negatively charged
resting potential ~-70mV

Difference in charge across membrane creates a state of "polarization"

b/c of polarization, neuron is charged, ready, and waiting to activate
threshold
a level of stimulatioon required for activation of a neuron

when threshold reached, changes occur rapidly.
action potential
an electrical current that travels along the axon of a neuron and is initiated by a rapid reversal of the polarization of the cell membrane.

releases NTs from axon terminal
4 steps in generation of Action Potential
1) neuron at rest, polarized
2) neuron stimulated to threshold
oppositely charged particles enter, and the action potential develops. neuron is depolarized or hyperpolarized.
3) after brief refractory period, neuron moves back to its polarized state
4) neuron returns to polarized state
Synaptic Vesicles
small structures that are found in every axon terminal and store neurotransmitters
Graded Potentials
aka
Post-Synaptic Potentials
Changes threshold of Receiving Neuron

EPSP or IPSP
Excitatory (Depolarize Cell) causes them to fire more easily
or Inhibitory (Hyperpolarize Cell) pushes neuron away from threshold for firing

Caused by NTs binding to receptor sites on receiving neurons, which causes a change in potential (action)
Acetylcholine
an excitatory NT
crucial to excitation of skeletal muscles
Inhibitory NTs
GABA, DA, SE, NE (if in brain), ACh in certain organs
Excitatory NTs
ACh in brain, autonomic NS, and certain organs, NE in certain organs
psychopharmacology
study of how drugs affect behavior
agonist
chemical that mimics or facilitates the actions of a neurotransmitter.

nicotine ACh agonist
antagonist
chemical that opposes the actions of a neurotransmitter

APs- Dopamine antagonists
2 parts of PNS
Autonomic
Somatic
Somatic Nervous System

what does it do (2 things)
carries information from sense organs to the brain and
from the brain and spinal cord to skeletal muscles, and thereby
allows bodily movement;
it controls voluntary sensory and motor functions.
Autonomic Nervous System
controls physiological actions and reactions that proceed automatically, such as HR, digestion, BP regulation, and the functioning of internal organs.

Has 2 Divisions
2 Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous Sytem
Peripheral Nervous System division
1) Peripheral Nervous Sytem
a) Somatic Nervous System
b) Autonomic Nervous System
aa) Sympathetic NS
bb) Parasympathetic NS
Sympathetic NS
responds to emergency situations by activation certain physiological changes to prepare the body to respond.

Fight or Flight
Parasympathetic NS
controls the normal operations of the body, including digestion, BP, and respirations.
3 major divisions of Brain
1) hindbrain
2) midbrain
3) forebrain
4 parts of hindbrain
1) Cerebellum
2) medulla
3) reticular formation (aka RAS)
4) pons
the structures of the hindbrain...
receive signals from the spinal cord and other parts of brain
medulla
the part of the hindbrain that controls heartbeat and breathing.

also sleep/dreaming
within the medulla is the ____
RAS
reticular formation
Involved in the regulation of arousal
pons
2 thiings
- a structure in the hindbrain that provides a link to the rest of the brain and affects sleep and dreaming
cerebellum
3 things
movement
coordination
balance
Midbrain
receives neural signals from other parts of the brain and from the spinal cord, interprets the signals, and either relays the information to the forebrain or causes the body to act at once.

controls temp reg and reflexes/mvment
forebrain
6 parts
hypothalamus
thalamus
basal ganglia
limbic system
cortex
corpus collosum
thalamus
- a large structure of the forebrain that acts primarily as a routing station for sending sensory information to other parts of the brain but probably also performs some interpretive functions

Let me connect you to the THALAMUS STATION
Hypothalamus
3 things/examples
that affects many complex behaviors, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity

The hypothalamus is motherfucking complex!
complex
Limbic System
whats it do
includes parts of the
influences emotions, memory, social behavior, and brain disorders such as epilepsy.

Includes parts of cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the amygdala and hippocampus

note: location of pleasure centers
hippocampus
3 things
involved in learning and memory, navigating in the environment, and some emotional functions.
amygdala
are involved in emotional behavior.

stimulation of amygdala in animals elicits attack response (Bull-Delgado)
basal ganglia
series of nuclei that are located deep in the forebrain to the left and right of the thalamus and that link the thalamus and the cortex.

control movement
what is the largest structure of the brain?
what does it consist of?
cerebrum
two cerebral hemispheres and covering called the cortex
connected by the corpus callosum
cerebral cortex
the convoluted exterior covering off the brain’s hemispheres, which is about 2-3mm thick and is divided into several lobes.
4 lobes of cerebral cortex
Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal
(Front to back, in circle)
cortex controls WHAT
thought.
most abstract and complex
frontal lobe
3 things about function
location
Function:
memory
movement
speech/lang. production

Located in the front of the central fissure; contains motor cortex and Broca's area
parietal lobe
function 1 thing
location
function:
sense of touch and body position
location
behind frontal lobe
temporal lobe
function 3 things
location
speech
hearing
some visual information processing

below parietal lobe (bottom)
occipital
visual sensing

back of brain
EEG
Electroencephalogram
small electrodes placed on the scalp record activity of thousands of neurons beneath the skull

shows brain wave patterns
MRI
imaging technique that uses magnetic fields to produce scans of great clarity and high resolution
fMRI
registers changes in the metabolism of the neurons.
PET (positron emission topography)
imaging technique that tracks radioactive substances injected into the bloodstream, allowing researchers to view how brain activity varies in response to different sensations, perceptions, emotions, and cognitive tasks.
contralateral control
R side of brain controls L side of body
Ipsilateral contral
R side of brain controls R side of body
much less dominant
Equipotentialism
behaviors are done using a wide range of different areas in the brain

All of brain used for tasks
Characterteristics of LEFT brain
logical
sequential
rational
analytical
objective
looks at parts
numbers and objects
RIGHT brain
random
intuitive
holistic
synthesizing
subjective
looks at wholes
faces and places
creative
hormones
chemicals that are produced by the endocrine glands and that regulate the activities of specific organs or cells
monzygotic twins
identical twins