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134 Cards in this Set

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The sum of all the scores divided by the total number of scores
We arrange all the scores in order from the highest score to the lowest score. The middle score is the median.
The score that occurs most frequently.
biomodal distribution
one with two common scores. Researcher might simply describe the two modes and not even mention the men or the median.
When is the mean a misleading estimate of an average or typical score in the data?
Mean can be misleading if the distribution is far from normal.
A statement of highest and lowest score.
standard deviation (SD)
A measurement of the amount of variation among scores in a normal distribution.
What does "p < .05" mean?
The probability that randomly generted results would resemble the observed results is less than 5%.
Confidence interval
The range within which the true population mean lies, with 95% certainty.
Test standardization
The process of establishing rules for administering a test and interpreting the scores
Descriptions of how frequently various scores occur.
What is the IQ score of someone who is considered "gifted"?
Refer to people more than 2 standard deviations above the mean as gifted. IQ 129
What is the IQ of someone with medial retardation?
More than two standard devitions below the mean as "retartded."
Flynn Effect
People's raw scores on IQ test have had to make the tests harder to keep the mean score at 100. IQ test have gotten harder to fit the generation.
Test reliability
The repeatability of its scores.
Test retest reliability
The correlation between scores on a first test and a retest.
Test validity
A determination of how well it measures what it claims to measure.
Construct validity
What it measures corresponds to a theoretical construct.
Predictive validity
The ability of a test's scores to predict some real-world performance.
Content validity
Its items accurately represent the information that the test is meant to measure.
Test utility
Useful for a practical purpose.
Francis Galton
- First to aruge for the importance of heredity. (Importance of genetics)
- His evidence was the politicians, judges, ad other eminent and distinguished ppl generally had distinguised relatives.
Alfred Binet
- Worked with Theophile Simon, devised the first IQ tests.
- Measured the kills that children need for success in school.
The belief tht information about heredity can be used to imporve the human race.
Assortative mating
The mating of individuals with similar pehotypes (physcial appearance)
Stanford-Binet test
The test that Binet and Simon designed was later modified for English speakers by Lewis Terman and other standford psychologists. School psychologists are carefully trained on how to adminster the test items and score the answers.
WAIS-III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)
Third edition- an IQ test originally devised by David Wechsler, commonly used on adults.
WISC-IV (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)
Fourth Edition- an IQ originally devised by David Wechsler, commonly used with children.
Ravens Progressive matrices test
- The most widely used culture-reduced test, devised by John C. Raven.
- These matrices, which progress gradully from easy to difficult items, attempt to measure abstract reasoning.
- Require no verbal responses or factual information.
Spearman's "g"? Why did he beleive g was the underlying fcotr in intelligence?
- Spearman aruged, to perform well on any test of mental ability people need a certain "general" ability.
- Intelligence consists of a general ability plus an unknown number of specific abilities, such as mechanical, musical, logical, ect.
Crystallized intelligence
Acquired skills and knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge in specific situations.
Fluid intelligence
The power of reasoning and using information.
Howard Gardner
- Multiple Intelligences: Music, social attentiveness, dancing mathematics, and all other skills that society values.
- Numerous unrelated forms of intelligence.
- Ex. Athlete can excell at body movement skills but lack musical abilities.
Robert Sternberg
- Triarchic theory: 3 aspects of intelligence= (1)Cognitive process (2)Identifying situations that require intelligence (3)Using intelligence in the external world
- Analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
Factor analysis
- To determine which traits correlate with one another.
- Ex. measurements of warth, gregariousness and assertiveness correlate strongly with one another, we can cluster them together as a single trait.
Normal distribution (normal curve)
A symmetrical frequency of scores clustered around the mean.
An estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity. Heritability ranges from 1, indicating tht heredity controls all the variance, to 0, indicating that it controls none of it.
Personality (Kalat)
All the consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from that of others, especially in social situtations.
Peronality (Dr. Krueger)
Distinctive, characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that uniquely defines an individual.
What does it mean when personaility is Distinctive?
Characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior that uniquely defines an individual
What does it mean when personaility is Consistency?
Stability in a person's behavior over time and cross situation.
Nomothetic approach to personality
Compared with others; everyone has certain traist to some degre, only differ in amount.
Idiographic approach
Unique constelltion of unique attributes; cannot compare across people
Hobbes (idea in personality)
Aruged that humans are by nature selfish. Life in a state of nature, he said, is "nasty, brutish and short." if we are to protect ourselves from one another, the government must restrain us.
Rousseau (idea in personality)
Disagreed with Hobbes. Maintainging that people are naturally good and that governments are the problem, not the solution. Rational people acting freely, he maintained, would advnce the welfare of all.
Projective personality test
Designed to encourage people to project their personality characteristics onto ambiguous stimuli. They are "projecting" their problem onto someone else, in Freud's sense of the word- that is, attributing it to someone else.
Rorschach Inkblots
A projective technique bsed on people's interpretations of 10 ambiguous inkblots.
Thematic Apperception Test
The person is asked to mke up a story for each picture, describing what is happening, what events led up to the scene, and what will happen in the future.
What are the advantages and limitations of the projective test?
Psychologist would like to measure personlity aspects that people cannot or will not discuss openly
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personlity Inventory)?
A series of true-false questions intended to measure certain personality dimensions and clinical conditions such as depression.
How is MMPI it created?
Originally developed in 1940s, has 550 items, the authors wrote hundreds of true-false questions that they thought might be usefulf or measuring personality.
Big 5 personality traits
Neuroticism, extraverison, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience
Tendency to experience unpleasant emotions relatively easily: Anxiety, hastility, depression
Tendency to seek stimultion and to enjoy the company of other people: warmth, gregarious, a need for excitement
Tendency to be compassionate toward others: concern for the welfare of other ppl
Tendency to show self-discipline, to be dutiful, and to strive for aachievement and competence: honest, strong work motivation
Openness to experience
Tendency to enjoy new intellectual experiences and new ideas: enjoy modern art, unusual music, enjoy meeting different ppl
4 Ways the Big 5 are basic
(1)They are real- stable over time and observers reach consensus about them. (2)They are pervasive- emerge consistently in factor analyeses. (3)They are universal- consistent across demographics and culture. (4)They are heritable- Due to differences in our genotypes.
Gordon Allport
Allport and H.S. Odbert ploddded through an english dictionary and found almost 18,000 words that might be used to describe personlity. They deleted words that were merely evaluation, such as nasty. Words that are synonyms.
Psychodynamic theory
Relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual, including some that the individual may not conscioulsy recognize.
A release of pent-up emotional tension
The repository of memories, emotions, and thoughts, many of them illogical, that affect our behavior even though we cannot talk about them.
The rational, decision-making aspect of the personality
Memory of rules and prohibitions we learned from our parents and the rest of society
All our biological drives, such as sex and hunger
Continues to be preoccupied with the pleasure area associted with that stage.
If one is "fixated" at a psychosexual stage of development, what does that mean?
If normal sexual development is blocked or frustrated at any stage, Freud, part of the libido become fixated at that stage.
Stages of psychosexual development
- Oral (birth-1): sucking, swallowing, biting
- Anal (1-3): expelling feces, retaining feces
- Phallic (3-6): Touching penis or clitoris
- Latent (5 to puberty): sexual interests suppressed
- Gential (puberty and onward): sexual contact with other ppl
Defense mechanism
the ego defends itself against conflicts nd anxieties by relegating unpleasant thoughts and impulses to the unconscious
Motivated forgetting- rejecting unacceptble thoughts, desires, and memories and banishing them to the unconsious
the refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety
the attribution of one's own undesirable characteristics to other ppl
What are the enduring contributions made by Freud?
- Much of metal life is unconscious we don't alway know why were doing something.
- People often have conflicting motives.
- Childhood experiences are important for the development of personality and social behavior.
- our relationship w/ other ppl may relate to other ppl like parents.
Believed that all people share a "collective unconsious" that represents the entire experience of humanity
Propsoed that people's primary motivation is a striving for superiority. Each person adopts his or her own "style of life" or method of striving.
Maintained that people naturally strive toward postitve goals and that they do not need special urging the recommended that people relate to one another with "unconditional positive regard."
One of the founders of humanistic psychology, introduced the concept of a "self-actualized personality" a personality associated with high productivity and enjoyment of life.
Genetic variance/total variance
How does Twin Study work? MZ? DZ?
- MZ: Monozygotic (identical)
- DZ: Dizygotic (faternal)
- Completing a twin study involves recruiting MZ and DZ twins and comparing similarities of twin pair of differernt zygosity.
Shared environment
"Between family" environment
Non-shared environment
"Withi-family" environment
Why do Twin studies find concerning the heritability of personality?
Twin studies find genes and non-shared enviornment significant for personality. But shared environment often around zero.
Social perception and cognition
The process we use to gather and remember information about others and to make inferences from that information.
Primary Effect
The first information we learn about someone influences use more than later information does.
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Expecttions that change one's own behavior in such a way as to increase the probability of the predicted event.
Actor observer effect
People are more likely to make internal attributions for other peoples behvior and more likely to make external attributions for their own.
Self-serving bias
Attributions that we adopt to maximize our credit for our success and minimize our blame for our failure.
Intentionally put themselves at a disadvantage to provide an excuse for possible failure.
Consistency information
How the person's behavior varies from one time to the next
How the persons behavior varies from one situation to another.
Consensus information
How the person's behavior compares with other people's behavior.
generalized belief of expectation about a group of people
Unfavorable attitude toward a group of people.
Unequal treatment of different groups
Aversive racism
Conseriously express the idea that all people are equal, but never the less harbor negative feelings or unintentionally discriminate.
Robber's Cave Study
At a special camp of average 11 year old boys were placed into two groups. They would compete against each other. When competing against each other they were very agressive. However, when they hd to work together they needed to agree. Team work= ease of prejudice
The set of thought processes we use to assign cuses to our own behavior and to the behavior of others.
Internal attribution
Explanations based on someone's individual characters, such as attitudes, personality traits, or abilities.
External attribution
Explanations based on the situation including events that presumably would influence almost anyone.
Actor-observer effect
- People are more likely to make internal attributions for other people's behavior and more likely to make external ttributions for their own.
- You are "actor" when you try to explain the causes of your own behvior and an "observer" when you try to explain someone else's behavior.
like or dislike tht influences our behavior toward someone or something
Central route to persuasion
When people take a decision seriously, they invest the necessary time and effort to evaluate the evidence and logic behind each message.
Peripheral route to persuasion
When people listen to a message on a topic they consider unimportant, they attend to such factors as the speaker's appearance and reputation or the sheer number of arguent presented, regardless of their quality.
How are attitudes most often measured?
Measured throught the use of attitude scales, ex. Likert Scale aka rating scale. Rate 1-7 (7 strongly agreeable) on several statements.
What are 3 errors commonly associated with this kind of research? (attitudes)
- People answer impulsively
- People anser due to momentary influences
- People have mixed or contradictory attitudes
Two resources of delayed influence
The sleeper Effect and Minority Influence
The Sleeper Effect
Delayed persuasion by an initially rejected message
Fear messages
- Do this to accomplish something good
- This this to avoid something bad, fear are effective only if they can convince ppl that the danger is real
How does similarity affect persuasive messages?
Persuasive messge is more effective if the speaker conveys the message.
How does group endorsement affect attitudes?
Endorsement by one party or the other use a significant influence. They insisted that they decided on their own.
Forewarning effect
Simply informing people that they are about to hear or persuasive speech activtes their resistance and weakens the effect of the talk on their attitudes
Inocultion effect
People first hear a weak argument and then a stronger argument supporting the same conclusion.
How do you convince ppl to change their mind?
If you want to convince ppl, start with your strong evidence, not with evidence that they may consider faulty.
We are most likely to become friends with ppl who live or work in close proximity and become familiar to us.
Most close ppl resemble one another in age, physcial attractiveness, political and religious beliefs, ect
Mere exposure effect
The more often we come in contact with someone or something, the more we tend to like that person or object.
Equity principle (exchange or equity theories)
- Social relationships are transactions in which partners exchange goods and services.
- Applies while ppl are forming friendships or romances, but it is less appliable.
"Highly Attractive"
Composite face has about an average nose, distance between the eyes, ect. No scars, crooked teeth, or blemishes
What do men and women differ in preference with regard to attractiveness, relationships, and sexual fidelity?
Both men and women prefer a physically attractive partner, but women have the dditional corn of preferring a partner who can be a good provider. Most men are less concerned about a woman's potential job success.
A Sucessful marriage
- Similar attitudes and personalities
- sexual relations frequently and argument infrequently
- adequate income
- not pregnant before marriage
Best way to express negative emotions
Maintaining or changing one's behavior to match the behavior exceptions of others.
Diffusion of responsiblity
We tend to feel less responsibility to act when other ppl nearby are equally ble to act.
Pluralistic Ignorance
A situation in which ppl say nothing and each person falsely assumes that everyone else has a different, perhaps better informed, opinion.
Social Loafing
The tendency to "loaf" (or work less hand) when sharing work with other people. Social loafing is rare in team sports.
Group polarization
If nearly all the people who compose a group lean in the same direction on a particular issue, then a group discussion will move the group as a whole even further in that direction.
The members of a group suppress their doubts about a group's poorly thought-out decision for year of making bad impression or distruption group harmony.
What are the elements that contribute to groupthink?
Main elements leading to groupthink are overconfidence by the leadership, underestimation of the competitors or problems, and pressure to conform.
Behavior trap
A situation that coerces ad into self-defeating behaviors
Escalation of Conflict
Auction; Point is that if you get into a situation like this, it is hard to escape
Prisoner's Dilemma
A situation where people must choose between a cooperative act and a competitive act that could benefit themselves but hurt others.
Common Dilemma
Ppl who share a common resource tend to overuse it and therefore make it unavailable in the long run.
Obedience to Authority
When ppl obey an authority who gives bad orders
Milgram Experiment
2 adult participate: The real participant is the shocker. The person that knows about the experiment is supposively being shocked. They are experimenting how far the shocker will go when he can hear the person in pain.