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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Psychology is based on what 2 premises?
Empiricism and Theory
the idea that knowledge should be acquired through careful observation
a collection of interrelated idesas and observations that together describe, explain, and predict behavior or mental processes
What are the 3 Principles of Scientific Endeavor?
1) Objectivity
2) Systematic Observation
3) Replicability

3 Principles:
Steps of the Scientific Method
1) State the Problem
2) Develop a Hypothesis
3) Design a Study
4) Collect and Analyze Data
5) Draw Conclusions and report results

Observation/Hypothesis/Experiment/Analyze Data/Form Conclusions
5 steps
a tentative statement or idea expressing a relationship between events or variables that is going to be tested in a study
a procedure in which a researcher systematically manipulates and observes elements of a situation in order to test a hypothesis and try to establish a cause-and-effect relationship.
Independent Variable
the condition that the experimenter manipulates to see what changes occur as a result of the manipulation
Dependent Variable
the behavior or response that is expected to change because of the manipulation of the independent variable.
a group of individuals who participate in a study and are assumed to be representative of the larger population.
Operational Definition
a definition of a variable in terms of the set of methods or procedures used to measure or study it
Descriptive Research Methods
the type of research that involves describing existing events rather than performing a manipulation of an independent variable and observing changes.
case study
a descriptive research method that involves intensive observation and analysis of a single individual

ex. LTP, Anna O'Hyster
Naturalistic Observation
(a descriptive research method that)involves observation of behavior in a naturally occurring situation rather than in a laboratory.
a descriptive research method in which a set of questions is posed to a large group of participants.
Correlational Study
a descriptive research method that attempts to determine the strength of a relationship between two variables.
Ex Post Facto study
a descriptive research method that allows researchers to describe differences among groups of participants.

contrast groups of participants who differ in some variable of interest (e.g. gender, age, race, etc.)

Note: very common
2 categories of Statistics used in Psych.
1) Descriptive statistics
2) Inferential statistics
Descriptive Statistics
A category of statistics that includes procedures to summarize, condense, and describe sets of data.
what is the 1st step in analyzing data?
1 word
Measure of central tendency
a descriptive statistic that tells

which score best represents an entire set of scores

3 types commonly used
3 measure of cental tendency often used
standard deviatioin
a measure of the variability of the scores in a set from the mean of the set
Coefficient of Determination
Correlational coefficient SQUARED to illustrate magnitude comparison
Inferential Statistics
A category of statistics that allows researchers to conclude whether the results they have obtained form meaningful patterns.
Significant Difference
a difference that is unlikely to have occurred because of chance alone and is thus inferred to be most likely due to the systematic manipulation of a variable in a research study.
rules concerning proper and acceptable conduct that investigators use to guide their studies

Ethics govern the treatment of animals, the rights of human beings, and the responsibilities of researchers
informed consent
the agreement of participants to take part in a research study and their acknowledgment, expressed through their signature on a document, that they have been fully informed about the general nature of the research, its goals, and its methods.
telling participants after study completion what the true nature of the study was