Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/74

Click to flip

74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is basic research?
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
What is applied research?
Used to solve a problem
What is a psychologist?
more focused on testing and research
What is a psychiatrist?
-medical doctor
-prescribes medication
hindsight bias
-idea that you already knew
-doesn't require any critical thinking
case study
study individual in great depth to reveal universal truths
placebo
substance administered without the drug in it
structuralism
-looks inward (introspective)
-Edward Titchner
functionalism
-how we interact w/ eachother
-why we do the things we do
double-blind procedure
experimental procedure where both participants and researchers are blind as to who received the treatment or placebo
placebo effect
any effect on behavior caused by the placebo
experimental condition
people who receive the treatment
control condition
w/o treatment for comparison
random assignment
assigning participants by chance, minimizing pre-exhisting differences between the assigned different groups
independant variable
factor that is being manipulated
dependent variable
experimental factor that is being effected
corralation coefficient
how much things vary/to what degree (relationships)
neuroscience perspective
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
evolutionary perspective
how the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one's genes
behavior genetics perspective
how much of our genes ad our environment influence our individual differences
psychodynamic perspective
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
behavioral perspective
how we learn observable responses
cognitive perspective
how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
social-cultural perspective
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures
empiricism
the view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experimentation
neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell
axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons, muscles or glands
action potential
a neural impulse; a breif electrical charge that travels down an axon
myeliln sheath
-layer of fatty tissue encasing the axons
-helps speed neural impulses
threshold
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite/cell body of the receiving neuron
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that move thru the synaptic gaps between neurons
autonomic
controls self-regulated actions of internal organs and glands
sympathetic
arousing
parasympathetic
calming
endorphines
natural neurotransmitters linked to pain and pleasure
somatic
controls the movements of our skeletal muscles
brainstem
-base of brain
-begins from spinal cord
medulla
-runs from brainstem
-controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
-above medulla
-controls arousal
thalamus
-above reticular formation
-reeives information from all senses except smell and routes it to the higher brain region
EEG
checks for electrial symptoms
PET
-swallow radioactive fluid
-visual display of brain activity
MRI
-uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce images that distinguish different types of soft tissue
-allows us to see structures w/in the brain
aphasia
-impaired use of language
-some can speak fluently but not read
Broca's area
-controls language expression
-after damage, a person struggles to form words yet can sing familiar songs easily
Wernicke's area
-controls language reception
-after damage, people could only speak meaningless words and were unable to comprehend other people's words
amygdala
aggression/fear
hippocampus
processes memory
pituitary gland
secretes different hormones
hypothalamus
maintenence regulator (eating, drinking, body temp)
plasticity
the brains capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
frontal lobes
-portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead
-involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear
occipital lobes
-the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head
-includes the visual areas, which receive visual info from the opposite visual field
temporal lobes
-the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears
-includes auditory areas, each of chich receives auditory info primarily from the opposite ear
motor cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and proesses body sensations
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands that secrete the hormones epinepherine and nonepinepherin, which help to arouse the body in times of stress
pituitary gland
the endocrine systems most influential gland that regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Function of ACh
enables muscle action, learning and memory
Function of Dopamine
influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Function of Serotonin
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
Function of norepinepherine
helps control alertness and arousal
Function of GABA
a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
Function of Glutamate
-a major excitatory neurotransmitter
-involved in memory
Undersupply of ACh causes...
Alzheimer's disease
Excess Dopamine causes...
Schizophrenia
Undersupply of Dopamine causes...
Parkinson's
Undersupply of Seratonin causes...
Depression
Undersupply of Norepinepherin causes...
depressed mood
Undersupply of GABA is linked to...
seizures, tremors, and insomnia
Oversupply of Glutamate can...
produce migranes or seizures