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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
observable events, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions
goals of psychology
explain, predict, modify, and control behavior, improve lives
500,000 BC, used to allow the escape of evil spirits
Franz Joseph Gall, 18th century: not a formal discipline until 19th century
Psychology evolved from ? and ?
biology and philosophy
In the early years of Psychology is did not rely on ?
empirical evidence (data)
Wilhelm Wundt
set up first psychology laboratory, developed structuralism, used a procedure called introspection
focuses on the fundamental elements that form the foundation of thinking, consciousness, emotions, and other kinds of mental states and activities
procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus
William James
studied how behavior allows people to satisfy their needs.
an early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does- the functions of mental activity and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their enviorments
an approach to psychology that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a "whole" sense rather than on the individual elements of perception
Wundt studied ? through introspection in th 1880s-1920s
inner sensations
Freud published ? in 1900
Interpretation of Dreams
In the 1920s-1960s, Watson and the behaviorist thought you should only study what you can observe, True or False
Definition of Psychology in the 1960s- present day
the science of behavior and mental process, behavior: anything an organism does that we can observe and record, metal process: internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior
Definition of Psychology from 1880s-1920s
the science of mental life
Definition of Psychology from 1920s-1960s
the science of what you can observe
Psychology Post WWII
obedience, conformity, authoritarian personality, leadership
Psychology 1950s-1960s
self development and self actualization
Psychology 1970s
gender differeces
Psychology today
drugs, impact of video media, impact of natural disasters, impact of terrorism
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
a specific point of view in judging things or events
neuroscience/biological perspective
a psychological approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological funcitons
what is the emphasis of the neuroscience/biological perspective
bodily events and changes associated with actions feelings and thoughts
the neuroscience/biological perspective involoves
hormones, brain chemicals, heredity, and evolutionary influcences
Psychodynamic perspective
a psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy
Psychodynamic perspective involves
unconscious thoughts, desires, conflict, inner forces over which the individual has little control
behavioral perspective
a psychological approach suggests that observable behavior should be the focus of study
What does the behavioral perspective emphasize
the enviorment and experience affect a person's or animals actions
cognitive perspective
a psychological approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world
what does the cognitive perspective emphasize?
mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
what does the cognitive perspective involve?
computer models of human thinking, infant thinking, intelligence testing
Humanistic perspective
approach that suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior
Humanistic perspective emphasizes
free will, positive psychology, flow, etc stem from this movement
nature vs nurture
does enviorment or heredity have stronger influence on our thoughts, feelings, behaviors?
consciousness vs unconsciousness
how much of our behavior is a result of free will?
individual differences vs universal principles
how much of our behavior is a consequence of our unique and special qualities?
What psychologists do?
psychological research
psychological practice
psychology in community
Psychological research
research in areas of basic or applied psychology
basic psychology
conducted to advance scientific knowledge, seeks knowledge for its own sake
applied psychology
study of issues that have direct practical significance
Biological bases of behavior
biopsychology, behavioral neuroscience
sensation, perception, learning, & thinking
experimental psychology: methodological study of sensing, perceiving, learning and thinking; cognitive psychology: emphasis on higher mental process
understanding change and individual differences
developmental psychology: changes in behavior over the life span (womb to tomb), personality psychology: examines consistencies in peoples behavior over time and traits that differentiate us from one another
physical and mental health
health psychology: explores relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease; clinical psychology: investigates diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
understanding our social network
social psychology: studies how people are affected by others; cross-culture psychology: focuses on the similarities and differences in psychological functioning across cultures and ethnic groups
new frontiers
clinical neuropsychology: focuses on relationship between biological factors and psychological disorders; evolutionary psychology: examines influence of our genetic heritage and our behavior
What are the genetic contributors to depression?
behavioral neuroscience
what qualities make up effective teachers
educational psychology
do lonely people have low self-esteem
personality psychology
what happens to short term memory as people get older
developmental psychology
what factors influence the size of bets a gambler makes?
experimental psychology
how can people be encouraged to develop healthier diets? safe sex?
health psychology
a trained professional that uses techniques to help some one overcome psychological difficulties and disorders, resolve problems in living , or bring a bout personal growth
clinical psychologist
trained to diagnose and treat problem that range from everyday crises of life, such as unhappiness over the breakup of a relationship to more extreme conditions such as profound lingering depression; research and investigate issues that range from identifying the early signs of psychological disturbance to studying the relationship between the family communication patterns and psychological disorders
psychodynamic therapy that involves frequent sessions and often lasts for many years
Psychology in community
business, police & law, hotlines & other public crisis situaiton,zoos and animal behavior, sport psychology
Future of psychology
increase in specialization, focus on prevention, greater influence on issues of public interest, increase in diversity