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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is psychology
The scientific study of human behavior and processes.
Psychologists
MD who has a masters in psychology , but not all are trained in treatment of mental illness.
Psychiatrists
MD who study mental health and can prescribe psych medications.
Nervous System is made up of.....
Central Nervous system & Peripheral Nervous system.
Central Nervous System
Consists of the nerves in the spinal column and the brain.
Peripheral Nervous system
Nerves in the body except excluding the brain and spinal column.
Neurons
basic buliding blocks of the nervous system. 3 types of neurons
3 types of neurons
Sensory(afferent)-carry info from sense organs to brain
Interneurons-carry info from neuron to neuron
Motor(efferent)-carry info from the brain to muscles.
Dendrite
A network of filaments that carry info from other neurons to the cell body.
Neurons consist of.....
Denrites, cell body, axons, myelin
Cell body
contains the nucleaus of the neuron dendites cover the cell body
Axon
single fiber that conducts an action potential away from the cell body.
Myelin
fatty like material that covers the axon. Protective layer that speeds up conduction of action potentials.
Synapse
the gap between nerve cells
neurotransmitters
chemical released by the neurons to deliver info to other neurons.
Dopamine, norepinephrine, dopamine, adrenalin, endorphins.
Agonists
drugs that produce same effect as neurotransmitters
Antagonists
drugs that inhibit the effects of a neurotransmitter
Brain Stem
lowest level of the CNS, contains the medulla and pons
Medulla
monitors reflex funcitons(respirations/heart rate)
Pons
relay station that sorts out and redirects cerve impulses flowing between brain and body impulses. Influences sleep/wake cycle.
What is psychology
The scientific study of human behavior and processes.
Psychologists
MD who has a masters in psychology , but not all are trained in treatment of mental illness.
Psychiatrists
MD who study mental health and can prescribe psych medications.
Nervous System is made up of.....
Central Nervous system & Peripheral Nervous system.
Central Nervous System
Consists of the nerves in the spinal column and the brain.
Peripheral Nervous system
Nerves in the body excluding the brain and spinal column.
Neurons
basic building blocks of the nervous system. 3 types of neurons
3 types of neurons
Sensory(afferent)-carry info from sense organs to brain
Interneurons-carry info from neuron to neuron
Motor(efferent)-carry info from the brain to muscles.
Dendrite
A network of filaments that carry info from other neurons to the cell body.
Neurons consist of.....
Denrites, cell body, axons, myelin
Cerebral Cortex
Center for higher brain functions.Language, perception, cognitive function. Most important structure in brain.
Midbrain
consists of the cerebellum and the limbic system.
Cerbellum
involved in coordination of movement of muscle development
Limbic System includes...
septum, amygalda and hippocampus. Handles much of emotional functioning of the brain.
Hippocampus
responsible for processing new info into long term memory.Processes new memories.
Thalmus
serves to integrate and organize nerve impulses passing between cerebral cortex. Deals with sensory experiences.
Hypothalmus
responsible for primary critical bodily functions, thirst, temp, hunger.
Hemispheric specialization
Concept that each hemisphere controld different functions of brain.
Left hemisphere
controls the right half of the body, responsible for cogniive functions language.
Right hemisphere
controls more creative functions. More involved in perception of emotions.
Corpus collusm
connects the 2 hemispheres, small bundle of nerves that transmits info between hemispheres
Hemispheres are broken into..
4 lobes = frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Corpus collusm
connects the 2 hemispheres, small bundle of nerves that transmits info between hemispheres
Hemispheres are broken into..
4 lobes = frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
Frontal lobe
responsible for language, planning and motor functions
Occipital lobe
handles visual information
parietal lobe
primary area for sensation and touch
temporal lobe
specializes in auditory info processing
Peripheral Nervous system is broken into...
somatic nervous system & autonomic nervous system
Somatic nervous system
connects the central nervous system to the voluntary muscles
Autonomic Nervous system
connects the central nervous system to the parts of the body we do not have control over (heart/lungs)
Autonomic Nervous system made of....
Sympathetic nervous system & parasympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system
prepares the body for energy use
Parasympathetic nervous system
prepares the body for restoration of energy
Endocrine System
system of glands through out the body that control processes.Metabolism,emotions and sexual development
Pituitary Gland
controls other glands in the system through the release of hormones. Regulates activity of male/female reproductive organs.
Thyroid gland
controls metabolism rates
Adrenal Glands
release adrenaline,keeping body highly aroused
Pancreas
produces insulin to control the metabolism of sugar
Testes & Ovaries
control overall development sexual behavior,reproduction in males and females
Equilibratory Sense
responsible for sense of balance and direction of gravity
Pheromones
related to the production of sex hormones. odor of one organism that attracts another.
Gustatory system
facilitates the sense of taste.contains taste buds on tounge, larynx,pharynx
sensory interaction
means by which one sense influences another sense
Retina
after image is focused it shines on retina. Photoreceptors of the eye.
Kinesthesia
the sense of position & movement of body parts in relation to each other.
4 distinct skin senses that comprise touch...
pressure,warmth,cold,pain
Gate control theory
proposes the spinal cord contains a neurological gate that can block or allow pain signals to pass into brain.
Perception
processing sensation so they can be understood cognitively.
Attention
the selectivity we use to process sensations
selective attention
prioritizing some stimuli over others and ignoring low priority stimuli
depth perception
ability to see objects in 3D. Can estimate their distance from yourself
Perceptual constancy
ability to see objects as unchanging
Color constancy
refers to the notion that if we are aware of an object's color then we perceive the object as that color
Illusions
when perception of a stimuli differs significantly from what is actually is
Conciousness
awarness of external environment and thoughts and feelings
Unconscious
automatic processing without awarness
EEG
electroencephalogram- recording device that measures electrical activity in the brain
Alpha wave
begin during the wake but drowsy state
delta waves
occur during sleep stages 3 and 4
Stage 1 sleep
lasts approx 2 minutes, sensation of falling
Stage 2 sleep
lasts 20 minutes,relax more deeply. Can be awakened easily
Stage 3 sleep
transitional sleep lasting a few minutes, delta waves begin
Stage 4 sleep
lasts 30 minutes, resistant to waking , may talk or walk in sleep. large slow delta waves
REM sleep
rapid eye movement, lasts 10 minutes, breathing more rapid, eyes twitch, difficult to arouse
Sleep Cycle repeats itself every ___ minutes
90 minutes
Insomnia
inability to fall asleep or maintain sleep
Parasomnias
abnormal events that occur during sleep
Narcolepsy
periodic overwhemling sleepiness, enters REM during waking hours
Sleep apnea
intemitten periods of arrested breathing during sleep. Low 02 levels cause person to gasp/choke.Can cause brain damage
Dream anxiety disorder
frequent disruptive nightmares
Night terrors
episodes of screaming or talking incoherently that occur during 1st hours of sleep.Rememners nothing of the event.Get OOB/walking
Delerium
impaired thinking whose source is biological, profound difficulty paying attention
Dementia
cognitive impairment,caused by compromised nervous systemt,troubles with memory
Amnestic syndrome
impairment of memory caused by neurological trauma, interfers with self identity.
hypnosis
state in which attention is relaxed or lessened, anxiety reduced, pain lowered.
dissociation
2 parts of the brain are functioning concurrently but seperately
Meditation
use of mental exercise to control one's conciousness by focusing on sounds/images to relax
CNA depressants
alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines
Stimulants
amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine
Opiates
heroin,opium,morphine, methadone,codeine,demerol, Darvon,percodan
Hallucinogens
mushrooms, LSD
Cannabinoids
marijuana, hashish
Solvents
glue and gasoline
Stimulants..
provide energy, moood elevation, reduce appetite. Increase activity levels.
CNS depressants...
slows heart rate,relaxes muscles,promotes sleep.Depresses the CNS
Korsokoff's syndrome
similar to alzheimers disease related to heaving drinking long term
Opiates....
reduce pain and sense of urgency, produce analgesic effect, pain relief and natural high.
Hallucinogens...
sensory illusions occur , senses overlap
Cannabinoids
produce mild euphoria, heightend sense of humor, enhance visual and auditory perception.Paranoia sets in
half life
how long it takes for the drug to breakdown in the body
shorter the halflife more addcitive
tolerance
takes more of the substance to get the intoxicated effect
withdrawl
when the substance is taken away abruptly body rebounds the opposite effect of the substance